A Year In A Scots Kitchen by Catherine Brown [free pdf ebooks online]


  • Full Title : A Year In A Scots Kitchen
  • Autor: Catherine Brown
  • Print Length: 209 pages
  • Publisher: Neil Wilson Publishing
  • Publication Date: November 14, 2011
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B006YZWA0S
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format: azw3

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The sell-out hardback and paperback editions of this book were critically acclaimed on publication and this Ebook edition brings Catherine Brown’s knowledge to a much wider audience. In A Year In A Scots Kitchen, Catherine Brown presents and exploresa feast of seasonal and celebratory foods throughout the year. She begins on 31 October, the traditional Celtic New Year, now better known as the popular children’s festival of Hallowe’en. She is guided by the guardians of Scotland’s culinary treasures — the farmers, fishermen, artisans and craftspeople in the food industry who follow the natural rhythm of the seasons as they grow, harvest, smoke, cure, preserve and cook food. The 20th century has witnessed many startling changes in food production and retailing. The most telling of these is the fact that while today’s ready-cooked, pre-packed produce may be sophisticated and diverse, it is often difficult to assess for true quality. A Year In A Scots Kitchen suggests a return to tracking down quality seasonal ingredients, if possible from local suppliers, as they ripen or mature naturally. It also provides a fascinating glimpse into traditional eating habits and seasonal festivities.This new digital edition is sure to become an essential item for all lovers of food and cooking.

 

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elationship of Sugar Concentration to Boiling Point

209

Exercise 3: Effect of Temperature and Agitation on Crystal Size

210

Exercise 4: Effect of Interfering Agents on Sugar Structure

211

Exercise 5: Alternatives to Sugar

214

Summary Questions—Sugars, Sweeteners

215

Dietitian’s Note

218

J. Batters and Dough

219

Exercise 1: Measurement of Flour

221

Exercise 2: Structural Properties of Wheat Flour

221

Questions—Gluten

222

Exercise 3: Chemical Leavening Agents

223

A. Ingredients of Baking Powders

223

B. Comparison of Speed of Reaction

224

Exercise 4: Factors Affecting the Leavening Power of Yeast

224

Questions—Leavening Agents

225

Exercise 5: Drop Batters, Muffins

226

A. Effect of Manipulation

226

B. Effect of Different Grains

229

Questions—Muffins

229

Exercise 6: Soft Dough, Biscuits

230

A. Effect of Manipulation

232

B. Substituting Soda Acid for Baking Powder

233

Questions—Biscuits

234

Exercise 7: Pancakes, Popovers, Cream Puffs, Crepes

234

A. Effect of Manipulation on Gluten Development in Pancakes

234

B. Effect of Manipulation on Gluten Development in Popovers

235

C. Cream Puffs

236

D. Crepes

237

Evaluation of Crepes

238

Questions—Pancakes, Popovers, Cream Puffs, Crepes

238

Exercise 8: Stiff Dough—Yeast Breads/Rolls

239

Evaluation of Yeast Rolls

240

Questions—Yeast Breads/Rolls

241

Exercise 9: Shortened Cakes

242

A. Effect of Manipulation and Type of Shortening on Cake Texture

242

Conventional Method of Mixing

243

Dump Method of Mixing

243

Evaluation of Cakes

244

Questions—Cakes

244

viii Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

Exercise 10: Stiff Dough—Pastry

245

A. Effect of Different Fat Plasticities on Palatability of Pastry

245

B. Effect of Different Fillings on Palatability of Bottom Crust

246

Questions—Pastry

250

Summary Questions—Batters and Doughs

252

Dietitian’s Note

255

Part iii. heating Foods by microwave

Microwave Cooking

259

Exercise 1: Effect of Cooking Procedure on Pigments and Flavors

261

Exercise 2: Fruits

261

Exercise 3: Vegetables

262

General Directions

262

Exercise 4: Starch Products

264

A. Pasta, Rice, and Cereals

265

B. Flour and Cornstarch as Thickeners

265

Exercise 5: Eggs

266

Exercise 6: Meat, Poultry, and Fish

267

Exercise 7: Batters and Dough

268

Exercise 8: Reheating Baked Products

269

Exercise 9: Defrosting

270

Summary Questions—Microwave Cooking

270

Part iv. meal management

Meal Management

275

Exercise 1: Analyzing Menus for Palatability Qualities

276

Exercise 2: Economic Considerations in Menu Planning

277

Exercise 3: Low-Calorie Modifications

278

Exercise 4: Meal Planning

279

Procedure for the Meal Preparation

279

Worksheet A: Market and Equipment Order

280

Worksheet B: Planning Schedule

282

Worksheet C: Summary Analysis of Meal Plan

283

Exercise 5: Meal Preparation

284

Student Evaluation of the Prepared Meal

284

Exercise 6: Restaurant Meals—Food-Ordering Practices

285

Summary Questions—Meal Management

286

Contents ix

Appendices

Appendix A: Legislation Governing the Food Supply

291

Appendix B: Food Guides and Dietary Guidelines

297

Appendix C: Some Food Equivalents

301

Appendix D: Average Serving or Portion of Foods

303

Appendix E: Food Allergies

305

Appendix F: Food Additives

311

Appendix G: pH of Some Common Foods

315

Appendix H-1: Major Bacterial Foodborne Illnesses

317

Appendix H-2: Meat- and Egg-Cooking Regulations

318

Appendix I: Heat Transfer

321

Appendix J: Symbols for Measurements and Weights

325

Appendix K: Notes on Test for Presence of Ascorbic Acid

327

Appendix L-1: Cooking Terms

329

Appendix L-2: Cuisine Terminology

331

Appendix M: Buying Guide

337

Appendix N: Spice and Herb Chart

341

Appendix O: Plant Proteins

343

Appendix P: Websites—Frozen Desserts

347

Preface

The whole world is in the food business—

at least in the consuming end.

I

— rma Rombauer

Here is Dimensions of Food, Seventh Edition—my, how time flies! This laboratory manual began as

pages of student handouts printed in the purple ink of a well-used mimeograph machine at Cornell

University. Today, this manual continues its original purpose of allowing students to explore the various

dimensions of food—viewing economic, nutritional, palatability, chemical, sanitary, and food process-

ing aspects of food.

Then, following the important chapters on the various dimensions of food, food principles are subse-

quently addressed by food item category, including:

• cereal and starch

• fruits and vegetables

• meat, poultry, and fish

• plant proteins

• eggs

• milk

• fats and oils

• sugars and sweeteners

• batters and dough

Each chapter contains Objectives, References, Assigned Readings, Terms, Exercises, and Recipes.

Palatability Terms to use in reporting data are also included. Learning experiences move from basic

demonstration to application. Throughout this manual, physical and chemical, functional and struc-

tural properties of food components are discussed in the chapter exercises. Study questions and prob-

lems are designed to assist students in clarifying and organizing facts into working principles. The

questions cover the many dimensions of food—economic, nutritional, including food allergies, and

so forth.

A section on microwave cooking and another on meal planning and preparation are included. Unique to

this lab manual are extensive appendices. For example, in this seventh edition there is a new appendix

dedicated to food allergies.

xi

xii Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

More than ever, students desire to be knowledgeable regarding what is in their food, how to make nutri-

tious, safe food more convenient to prepare, and how to eat well on a budget! Therefore, the intent of this

introductory foods manual is to involve students in a semester-long experience that provides them with

a better understanding of food. Each food chapter closes with a Dietitian’s Note.

Our desire is to provide a variety of experiences from which instructors may choose those most

helpful to their students. Space has been allocated for insertion of additional, teacher-provided

material. As in the past, this manual is adaptable to two one-and-a-half-hour labs, or one three-hour

lab; parts may be completed as independent study projects, with activities carried out in the lab or

outside the classroom.

In keeping with the intent to better understand foods, once the exercises in this book have been com-

pleted, the student will have a personal and professional reference. Once again, as in earlier editions, we

say “Thank you” to our students, whose curiosity and penetrating questions continue to make teaching

the dimensions of food a joyful challenge!

V.A. Vaclavik

M.H. Pimentel

M.M. Devine

Part i

Dimensions of Food

Ah! Good eating is our goal, both personally and professionally. We desire that foods maximize our

health and pleasure, and that food is nutritious, safe to eat, personally satisfying, and obtainable within

the resources that each of us chooses to expend. Yet, realizing these goals in the marketplace is a chal-

lenge, a challenge of values, resources, choices, and conflicting information.

Today we have numerous suppliers from whom we can purchase various foods. However, we may hear

or read conflicting nutrition-related news reports—even in the same day, causing us to become uncer-

tain in our decisions about food. In the end, perhaps we are limited in our knowledge of exactly WHAT

to purchase or exactly WHAT to think about good eating!

Part I of this manual helps clarify and examine in some depth the multidimensional nature of food

decisions. Exercises, charts, and questions help investigate the economic, nutritional, palatability, sani-

tary, chemical, and processing dimensions of our food supply. Key principles are organized. Thus the

relative values of food can be appraised and food choices tailored to the student’s personal resources,

needs, and beliefs.

Let’s get started!

A. Economic Dimensions

He who steals my money gets trash;

he who steals my food gets a good meal!

A

— nonymous

objectives

To recognize factors that influence cost of food items

To calculate and compare cost per unit of various food items

To identify types of information available to the consumer in the marketplace

To delineate uses of different food qualities for specific purposes

To interpret, evaluate, and use food label information as a buying guide

To distinguish and enumerate the many considerations involved in choosing a “best food buy” for an

individual or family

References1

Appendix A: Legislation Governing the Food Supply

Label Information to download: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html#see1

terms

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

Generic brand

A.P./E.P.

Food Additive Amendment

House brand

Unit pricing

Delaney Clause

NAS/NRC

Gross weight

Fair Packaging Act

RDA

Net weight

Labeling regulation

Daily value

Nutrition facts

Standards of identity

Dietary guidelines

“Planned-overs”

1 Websites current at time of printing.

3

4 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

In the following sections, exercises are presented to illustrate some factors that affect the economy of

food and food decisions. The exercises may be completed in the laboratory, as a class at a grocery store,

or independently.

exeRCise 1: FACtoRs inFluenCing the Cost oF FooD

Procedure

1. Complete the tables by matching the samples of products displayed with the price/item or inde-

pendently, by visiting a grocery market.

2. Compare information and explanations with your classmates.

A. Quality of Product—Comparing store and national Brands

Brand

Price/Product

Price/Serving

Description

Uses of Product

National brand #1

National brand #2

Store brand

1. Why is there a difference in price per can of the same product?

2. What is the difference between a store brand and a national brand?

eConomiC Dimensions 5

3. What do the different labels state concerning the type of pack and net contents?

4. Which do you consider the “best buy”? What criteria are used by consumers in selecting

canned products?

B. Caloric and Price Differences of various Product Formulations

Evaluate the relative caloric and price differences among the regular and diet products, for example,

canned fruit, salad dressings, soft drinks, etc.

Brand and Product

Calories/Serving

Cost/Serving

1 a. (reg.)

b. (diet)

2 a.

b.

3 a.

b.

1. Does the caloric value justify the price of any of these products? Explain.

2. How do caloric information and unit pricing assist in the consumer’s food purchasing selection?

6 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

C. the Cost of Convenience Foods—

Ready-to-eat Products, Packaged mixes

Examine several ready-to-eat and packaged mixes of convenience foods. Compare cost per serving of

convenience foods to the same product prepared from scratch (e.g., baked items, puddings, etc.).

Type of Food

Brand and Product

Cost/Serving

1. “Scratch” Form

Packaged Mix

Ready-to-Eat

2. “Scratch” Form

Packaged Mix

Ready-to-Eat

1. What is the relationship between convenience and price?

2. What factors may influence a consumer’s choice of product form?

D. Comparing Price per serving of various Forms of a Food

1. milk

Compare several milk products (as available) and complete the following chart:a

Form of Milk

Unit

Cost/Unit

Cost/Servingb

Uses of Product

Nonfat dry milk (national brand)

Bulk

Nonfat dry milk (store brand)

Bulk

Evaporated, whole

12 oz. (360 mL)

eConomiC Dimensions 7

Form of Milk

Unit

Cost/Unit

Cost/Servingb

Uses of Product

Evaporated, skim

12 oz. (360 mL)

Fresh, whole

1 qt. (1 L)

Fresh, 2%

1 qt. (1 L)

Fresh, skim

1 qt. (1 L)

a For laboratory purposes, use quart or liter as market unit.

b 8 fl. oz. (240 mL), or as reconstituted to 8 oz. (240 mL).

1. How do the form and brand of milk affect price?

2. State how “unit pricing” assists consumers in determining the best buy for the money spent.

3. Discuss how the various forms of milk could be used in order to take advantage of price differences.

2. Potatoes

Compare several potato products. Calculate cost per servinga and suggest possible uses.

Form of Potato

Cost/Unit

Cost/Serving

Possible Uses of Product

Idaho baker

Potatoes (regular)

Canned potatoes

Dried potato flakes

Frozen French fries

Frozen hash browns

a See Appendix C.

8 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

1. What factors influence the form of potatoes that will be chosen for dinner by an individual?

2. How will the season of the year affect the above price comparison?

3. How does the geographic location of a consumer affect the price paid for food?

e. Cost Comparison of Food, As Purchased (A.P.)

and edible Portion (e.P.)

Compare the cost per pound (454 g), as purchased (A.P.) to cost per pound (454 g), edible portion (E.P.).

Food

Cost/lb. (g) A.P.

Percent Wastea

Weight E.P.

Cost/lb. (g) E.P.

Apple

8

Banana

32

Broccoli

22

Carrot

18–22

Orange

25–32

Fresh peas (in pod)

62

Chicken, fryer

32

Haddock, fillet

0

a Source: Watt, B.K. and A.L. Merrill. 1963. Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared. Agricultural Handbook No. 8.

Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Consumer and Food Economics Research Division.

1. What factors influence the percentage of waste in a food?

2. How is information about percent waste of value to the consumer?

eConomiC Dimensions 9

exeRCise 2: lABels As guiDes in FooD PuRChAsing

Procedure

1. Complete the table by viewing the samples of products displayed or by visiting a grocery market.

2. Share information and answers with classmates.

Product

Label Information Type

1. What product label information assists you in food purchasing decisions?

2. What government regulations and federal agency specify criteria for labeling?

3. What label format or information, not currently provided, would be useful to consumers?

4. Identify how labels may be guides in purchasing of foods for special dietary needs such as

food allergies.

10 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

exeRCise 3: “heAlth” FooD

Compare several versions of food products, including “health” food. Calculate cost per servinga and

suggest possible benefits.

Food Product

Cost/Unit

Cost/Serving

Possible Benefits

exeRCise 4: PlAnneD-oveR FooDs

Procedure

1. List (no prep) several foods that may be deliberately planned to yield leftovers for home or work.

2. Identify cost–benefits, microbial concerns, nutrient retention strategies, and reheating options.

Planned-Over

Microbial

Food

Cost–Benefit

Concerns

Nutrient Retention

Reheating Options

eConomiC Dimensions 11

3. In the chart, summarize leftover food appearance, texture, and flavor for the following foods:

Food

Appearance

Texture

Flavor

Soup

Meat

Meat alternative

Potato

Rice

Noodles

Vegetables

Dessert

Other

summARy Questions—eConomiC Dimensions

1. Summarize the diverse factors that influence prices of food.

2. Based on comparisons of various food products, list major factors a consumer might consider in

selecting good money buys.

Just think:

In practice, what factors, other than price, do consumers take into account when selecting food in

the marketplace?

B. Nutritional Dimensions

Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food.

Hi

— ppocrates

objectives

To identify standard serving size of selected foods

To identify factors influencing caloric value of foods

To compute nutritive values of selected foods

To generalize the major nutrient contributions of groups in the Pyramid

To recognize the advantages and disadvantages of food guides

To use the Pyramid and Dietary Guidelines to evaluate a dietary plan

To recognize the major foods causing food allergies

References1

Appendices B, C, D, E

http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/cf101-12.html (standard serving size Table 2)

www.MyPyramid.gov

www.eatright.org

www.ific.org

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/label.html

www.diabetes.org

www.aicr.org

http://www.aicr.org/publications/nap/ssw.lasso (standard serving sizes for average adults)

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/nic.org/

1 Websites current at time of printing.

13

14 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/allergies/hic_living_with_a_food_allergy.aspx

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/allergies/hic_Problem_Foods_Is_it_an_Allergy_or_

Intolerance.aspx

terms

Allergen

MyPyramid.gov

Dietary Guidelines

NRC/NAS

Food Guides

Nutrition Facts

Functional Food

RDI, RDA

Labels

Standard serving size

To see portion size, go to: Spotlights

• Go to Inside the Pyramid

• Go to Related Topics

• Go to View Food Gallery

• Select Food to see portions

exeRCise 1: DeteRmining seRving size

Procedure

1. Observe a demonstration or calculate the standard serving size of several foods or food models.

2. Record weight/measure in the table.

3. Display food or food models; see pictures of portion sizes on MyPyramid.gov.

4. Compare your personal conception of a serving with the standard serving size.

nutRitionAl Dimensions 15

Standard Serving Size

Food

Weight/Measure

Comments

Bread

Crackers

Pasta

Peanut butter

Meat, poultry, fish

Cooked legumes

Cooked vegetables

Canned fruits

Whole fruits

Ice cream

Other

exeRCise 2: FACtoRs AFFeCting

CAloRiC vAlue oF FooDs

Procedure

1. Observe a demonstration or calculate 100-calorie portions of apple products.

2. Display and compare sizes of portions. Record observations.

Raw Apple

Applesauce

Apple Pie

100-kcal portion size

What are some of the factors that affect the caloric value of these apple products?

16 Dimensions oF FooD, seventh eDition

exeRCise 3: nutRient ContRiButions

oF the FooD PyRAmiD

Procedure

1. Using the portion size reference listed, determine the standard serving size of foods in the group

of foods assigned. (These groups do not represent a daily menu!)

A

B

C

skim milk

whole milk

apple

egg

canned pineapple

cheddar cheese

frozen peas

beets

hamburger

black bean soup

pork chop

macaroni

peanut butter

canned peas

potato, white

lettuce

corn flakes

sweet potato/yam

black-eyed peas

tortilla

process(ed) cheese

D

E

F

canned peaches

celery

cottage cheese

yogurt

margarine

biscuit

tomato

spinach/kale

fresh green beans

taco

orange

lasagna

collard greens

tuna fish

fish fillet

kidney beans

tomato juice

cabbage

rice

bread, enriched

pancakes

carrots, raw

grapes

frosted cereal

2. Calculate and record the nutritive value of standard servings in assigned group(s) A to F, under the

app

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