Conquer Your Cravings by Suzanne Giesemann, htmlz, B000VHZZ02


  • Full Title : Conquer Your Cravings
  • Autor: Suzanne Giesemann
  • Print Length: 240 pages
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education; 1 edition
  • Publication Date: January 22, 1998
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B000VHZZ02
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format: htmlz

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For the person who is trying to stick to a healthy diet, getting a food craving can be a nightmare. Consumed with quieting the craving, one often gives in to it.

Conquer Your Cravings illustrates how to end food cravings–permanently. Readers learn how to use positive thinking, visualization, and personal empowerment to successfully fight their cravings through a remarkable four-step program.

 

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Keywords

coffee & vanilla, ice cake, plant based diet for beginners, vegan celebrities, appam,
margarita cocktail recipe, pancakes from scratch, coffee grinders, dim sum cafe, why gluten free, rab a cup of coffee, and head over to peruse each and every aisle. I found it therapeutic, exhilarating, and oftentimes very rewarding. Over the years, I’ve become quite the expert, so here are a few of my tips for navigating around a flea market.

what to wear

Dress in comfortable, casual clothes. Browsing through dusty old furniture and knickknacks is not an activity that calls for your wardrobe’s best for two reasons: (1) you’ll get dirty, and (2) if you’re wearing something that looks expensive, you won’t be able to bargain as efficiently. Be sure to wear layers if you plan on trying on clothes, and pack an extra pair of socks so you can test out shoes without going home with some sort of weird fungus. Bring sunglasses and a small bag you can wear on your shoulder or across your body.

come prepared

Before you go to the flea market, decide how much you want to spend. Since most vendors don’t accept credit cards, pick up cash before you go. Limiting yourself to this amount is a great way to stick to your budget. If you’re looking for furniture or art, know the dimensions of your place. There’s nothing worse than coming home with a perfect sofa that’s too big to fit in your living room. Have an idea of things you need (vases, bookends, jewelry), so you’re on the lookout, but also be open to discovering random pieces that you hadn’t considered before.

strike a deal

Knowing how to bargain at a flea market is one of the most crucial parts of the experience. Here’s how to go about getting something for the price you want:

1 Once you’ve found something you love, ask yourself how much you’d be willing to pay.

2 From there, you can either ask for the price you want (“Would you take twenty dollars for this?”) or simply ask, “What’s the lowest price you’d take for this?” Either way, you’ll get a good idea of how much the vendor wants. I typically ask the latter, just in case he or she is willing to sell it for a lot less than what I had imagined paying.

3 If the vendor asks for more than your ideal price, start the bargaining process. Ask for a price lower than your target amount so that you can meet in the middle.

4 If the seller isn’t willing to budge, take out cash. Often, if you have it in your hands and offer it one last time, a vendor will just go for the quick sale.

5 If you’re unable to come to an agreement on the price, walk away. Think about it for a while, and if you truly can’t go home without it, buy it. Chances are, you won’t regret it.

examine items carefully

While buying antique or vintage items is part of the main appeal of shopping at a flea market, their age can also be one of the biggest annoyances. It’s important to thoroughly inspect items before you bring them home. If there are flaws, make sure they can be fixed.

clothing

Look for rips, tears along seams, missing buttons, broken zippers, discolorations, and stains. I’ve come home far too many times with a great item, only to discover a gaping hole that’s not fixable. The same goes for shoes: make sure to examine the outer material and the sole, and see how they hold up when you walk around in them for a bit.

furniture

Make sure things are well constructed and sturdy, and consider whether they could possibly be reupholstered, dyed, or painted.

things to look for

clothing

When it comes to clothes, I try to search for things that aren’t readily available in stores. Look for special detailing that sets an item apart—whether it’s an intricate collar, a pretty pattern, or an interesting cut. Always remember that things can be tailored, as long as they’re not too small, so if you fall in love with the pleating on a skirt that’s a tad too long or a preppy blazer that’s still rocking big shoulder pads, those are easy fixes for a professional.

Specifically: blazers (usually those made for boys), ’70s sundresses (for more on dress shopping at flea markets, see Finding the Perfect Vintage Sundress, this page), sequined tops, and vintage Levi’s cutoffs.

accessories

Among the easiest things to acquire at a flea market (even for a beginner) are accessories. It’s not hard to find something that fits, and accessories are a great way to incorporate vintage pieces into a more current wardrobe.

Specifically: sunglasses (look for varying shapes, sizes, colors, and any special details), belts, boots, clutches (look for unexpected materials and sizes—either really big or small), and silk scarves (tie one on a bag, wear it in your hair, or use it in lieu of a belt).

home

Nearly all the most treasured items in my home are from flea markets. See the following pages for a few examples of some of my favorite finds. Their age adds such character and acts as a nice complement to modern furnishings.

Specifically: mirrors, trays, buckets, baskets, art, chairs, and kitchen supplies (cake stands, bowls, cups, and vases).

soles of spring

One of my favorite changes that comes with spring is the transition from tights and boots to sandals and bare feet. Though certain trends come and go (case in point: gladiators), there are a few shoes that I rely on, year after year.

1 Nude platforms.

Perfect for day or night, they are elongating and light and fresh for spring.

2 Wooden wedges.

These are a great way to add a natural element to your ensemble and to balance out girly apparel. I like them to have at least a one-inch platform.

3 Short ankle boots.

These boots are great for those chilly days when you don’t want to wear a high boot and also are cute with sweater dresses and cuffed jeans.

4 Patent sandals.

Transitional, but slightly dressier sandals than leather, these are perfect for brunch or with a maxi dress at night.

5 Bright pumps.

A classic pump in a fun color is ideal for adding a bit of life to a neutral outfit.

layering jewelry

I’m a big fan of layering jewelry, as it provides a great starting point for the rest of your ensemble. I almost always have a stack of bracelets on one arm that looks relatively thrown-together but is actually quite planned. The trick when layering jewelry, whether necklaces, bracelets, or rings, is to have the selection look unforced but cohesive. Here are some of the ways I mix and match different accessories.

bracelets

Start with one main focal point. Whether it’s a chunky bracelet or a colorful bangle, let it be the jumping-off place for the rest of the pieces. Then build from there, trying to make the look intentional, but not too matchy-matchy. Don’t worry about mixing metals (I love the combination of yellow gold with rose gold), and look to incorporate different textures and shapes. The end result should be an interesting combination that looks chic and eye-catching.

rings

When it comes to rings, balance is key. So if you’re wearing a large cocktail ring on one hand, stick to smaller rings on the other. My favorite way to wear rings is to stack them on one finger, with a few plain delicate bands mixed in with different gemstones.

necklaces

Necklaces are best when they’re a variety of lengths, with the shortest falling to the clavicle and the longest hitting mid-sternum. A creative combination of necklaces adds great texture to whatever you’re wearing and even looks good tucked into a blouse or dress.

brooches and pins

I like wearing vintage brooches in groups, since I find it makes them feel more modern. I go for common shapes that are easy to find in multiples (like rhinestones in circles or bows) and then wear them as a cluster on a blazer pocket or lapel.

a dress for multiple occasions

I always had an entire section dedicated to dresses in my closet, but when I used to need one for a specific occasion, I never felt like I was adequately prepared. I’ve since implemented more of a system, organizing my dresses by type, and have compiled a list of the five dresses that every girl should have in her closet.

1 bright shift dress

Shift dresses are nice for daytime occasions, whether a graduation or a bridal shower. Wear it with heels, since this style can look a bit matronly with flats or sandals.

2 professional dress

Find a dress that strikes the balance of being not too revealing but still flattering. I like neutral colors or subtle patterns that you can wear a variety of ways. It should look great dressed up (with a trench coat and heels) or more casual (with patent-leather ballet flats and a sweater).

3 Ibd

The little black dress is provocative, yet demure. It should be able to take you from the office to a fancy cocktail hour. This is one item I’d recommend saving up for, since it will probably be the most versatile item you own (note: if you can’t spend a lot on the dress, at least take it to a good tailor so that the fit is close to perfect). Make sure it’s a classic shape and is a flattering cut for your body.

4 sequins

The obligatory New Year’s Eve/Vegas/perfect party dress—it should make you feel amazing every time you throw it on. Look for fun details like an open back or slits on the arms. If you’re going to go short, make sure it has a modest top (my favorite is a long-sleeved mini dress), and the same goes for if it’s low cut: make sure that it doesn’t hit too high above the knee. Pair it with a nude or black heel, so you don’t distract from the dress.

5 sweater dress

Make sure it’s not too short, which can make people suspect you are wearing a regular sweater without pants. This dress should be cozy and cute, perfect for running errands on a chilly afternoon. Whether you wear it with tights and heels or barelegged with ankle booties, it’s a great piece that looks polished but effortless.

beauty

Spring beauty should be pared down, simple, and pretty. Think glowy skin, pink lips, and natural hair.

5 spring beauty must-haves for any budget

All Splurge items are shown on the left, Steal items on the right.

1 Hair: deep conditioner (necessary after months of dry, cold weather). Splurge: Kérastase. Steal: Neutrogena’s “Triple Moisture.”

2 Face: bronzer (an easy way to look like you’ve gotten just a smidge of springtime sun on your cheeks). Splurge: Nars’s “Laguna.” Steal: Wet n Wild’s “Mego Glo Illuminating Powder.”

3 Body: light floral fragrance (great for layering—I love orange blossom, gardenia, and jasmine). Splurge: Annick Goutal’s “Petite Cherie.” Steal: Juicy Couture’s “Viva La Juicy.”

4 Lips: a light pink lipstick (brightens your face without looking too “done”). Splurge: MAC’s “Snob.” Steal: Revlon’s “Pink Part.”

5 Nails: pretty pastels in different shades (to mix and match on your hands and feet). Splurge: Chanel’s “Coco Blue.” Steal: Essie’s “Borrowed Blue.”

how to: glowy skin

The secret behind getting a glowy look is starting with very moisturized skin. Even before you put on makeup, it should have a nice sheen that will only be improved with a bit of coverage. Here are my techniques for looking luminescent.

tools

Moisturizer

Tinted moisturizer

Illuminating gel

Concealer

Bronzer

Highlighting powder

Cheek stain

Eyelash curler

Mascara

1 Moisturize your skin with a lotion that has both SPF and some sort of reflective qualities (I like Aveeno’s Positively Radiant line). In your hand, mix two parts tinted moisturizer (I like Laura Mercier) with one part illuminating gel (Nars makes a great one, as does Revlon) and apply this all over your face and neck. Blend well.

2 Add concealer only where necessary (I use one by Time Balm)—on blemishes or around your eyes or nose.

3 Lightly swipe bronzer (Nars’s “Laguna” is my favorite) across your forehead, down the bridge of your nose, along your cheekbones, and on your chin. Just remember to use a light hand, so the color is added gradually and looks natural.

4 Apply highlighting powder along your brow bone and down the bridge of your nose. (MAC makes a great highlighting powder, but you can also use pearly white eye shadow for this—I use one by Neutrogena.)

5 Rub a cheek stain onto the apples of your cheeks (try Benefit’s “Benetint” or Tarte’s “Dollface”).

6 Curl your eyelashes (nothing beats Shu Uemura’s version of this tool) and add a coat of black mascara (Maybelline’s “Lash Stiletto” goes on clump-free).

how to: blow-dry hair

While most people have naturally wavy, curly, or straight hair, I would categorize mine as frizzy and unruly. It also happens to be color-treated and incredibly thick, which makes blow-drying it a royal pain. Thankfully, I’ve picked up tons of tricks over the years so that I’m now able to give myself a blow-out that rivals those at the salon. It takes a bit of time to master (especially getting over the intimidation factor of using a round brush), but here are my steps to getting hair that’s smooth and sleek with a natural bounce.

tools

Hair towel

(it speeds up the drying time)

Round brush

Styling cream

Blow-dryer

Hair ties

Hair clips

Hair spray

1 After shampooing and conditioning, wrap your hair tightly in a towel and secure it on top of your head for at least 10 minutes so your hair won’t be sopping wet when you begin.

2 Remove the towel and brush your hair so it’s tangle-free.

3 Apply product (I like to use styling creams that also tackle frizz like Moroccan Oil or Bumble and bumble’s “Grooming Creme”).

4 With the blow-dryer on the hottest setting, start to dry your hair, concentrating on the roots and running your fingers through to separate strands.

5 For extra volume, use a round brush to lift hair at the roots. At this stage you want your hair to be about 80 percent dry.

6 Divide your hair into three sections, and secure the bottom two with rubber bands. Begin with the very top section and, using your round brush, create tension by pulling hair taut, and direct air at the root of the hair, then slowly move out toward the ends.

7 Once the top section is dry, use a clip to secure it on top of your head. Follow the same steps for the two bottom sections of hair.

8 After all three sections of hair have been dried, remove the clips and lightly spray some hair spray over your entire head to help control flyaways.

at home

It’s nice to lighten up your place after winter, freeing it from heavy blankets and dark colors, and one of the things I most look forward to is spring cleaning. Though it’s a lot of work, the results are so rewarding and it’s a great way to embrace the new season.

office organization—the tipping point

I’m organizationally challenged, and up until recently, my place had absolutely no order or structure. I didn’t own a filing cabinet (let alone a single file), my drawers were bursting with odds and ends, and most of my things didn’t have a designated place. This all changed when I made it a priority to create a system that not only kept things organized, but also was aesthetically pleasing.

I realized that my teetering stacks of papers, receipts, and documents had to go, so I bought a simple filing cabinet (from CB2) and started organizing. The hardest part is implementing a system that works, but once it’s been created, your life will be free of clutter and chaos.

categorize

Pick several main categories that will work for you. Mine are Home, Legal, Personal, Financial, Medical, Blog, and To Do. I keep a small filing folder on my desk that has these main sections divided out, so when I’m in a rush and don’t have time to file things completely, I just stick papers into their corresponding category.

create subsections

In my filing cabinet, I have my main categories (listed above), with smaller folders within each that are more specific. For example, within my Financial section, I have folders dedicated to things like Banking, Taxes, Bills, Social Security, etc.

give everything a place

Think beyond the obvious sections and include things that are typically left uncategorized. If you want a secure place to store your passport, a folder that keeps track of gift ideas, or a file dedicated to your pets, create one.

get professional

Instead of messily scribbling down each section within your filing system, purchase a label maker. It’s a great investment that will help keep your folders looking clean and concise, and can also be used in numerous other ways (for labeling jars in the kitchen or bathroom essentials, for example).

go digital

Almost everything these days can be created or stored electronically, so consider a digital filing system. It’s environmentally sound and creates much less clutter. Make sure all statements are sent to you via e-mail instead of snail mail; important documents, photographs, or other valuable papers can be scanned and saved on your computer. The most critical aspect of storing things electronically is to be vigilant about backing up your work. I set a reminder for myself once a month to transfer my work from my computer onto an external hard drive that I keep in my filing cabinet for easy access.

separate

To ensure your desk drawers stay neat, measure out the space and buy dividers so that all of your office supplies are easily accessible.

jeweled corners

I’m a firm believer that jewelry should not be stowed away in drawers to collect dust. Instead, display it. It will be a part of your home’s decor, and simultaneously will remind you to wear what you own.

necklaces

I used to keep all my necklaces together in a drawer, but lost patience with constantly having to detangle them. I now keep them on a vintage mannequin bust that helps brighten up the room and also makes accessorizing that much simpler.

rings/bracelets/brooches

I keep all my rings, bracelets, and brooches in simple vintage dishes. They’re easy to see (so I use them more often), and I love how the antique feel of the saucers makes them part of my room’s decor.

closet clutter—clothes uncovered

One of the best things about having a functional closet is that you can actually see everything you own and are much more likely to wear it. When things are hidden and crammed into corners, your wardrobe never feels complete, and getting dressed becomes a hassle.

edit

Make sure your closet is filled only with items that are flattering, comfortable, and on trend. There’s no use holding on to things that you never wear. This creates clutter and prohibits you from having a well-rounded wardrobe. It doesn’t matter if something was a gift or you’re keeping it for sentimental reasons; if you’re not reaching for it on a regular basis (at least a couple of times a year), donate it.

take inventory

If you already have three pairs of skinny jeans and a collection of black blazers, downsize. Keep only the ones you love, that are in good condition, fit perfectly, and are still current.

utilize space

Whether you have a large walk-in or a miniature closet that would be better equipped to hold doll clothes, make the most of it. Invest in slimline hangers that take up less space, use pretty boxes to store things like scarves and gloves, and buy shelf dividers so that you can line up all your bags without them getting squished or falling over each time you remove one.

make it pretty

The best dressing rooms in stores always have great details, which makes trying on clothes a much more enjoyable experience. Bring those elements into your own home by making small
sauvignon blanc wine, wine accessories, filo pastry recipes, garlic naan, cubed steak, plants and animals that inhabit the Alleghenies of eastern West Virginia are quite different from those in the Sonora desert of southern Arizona and still others around Puget Sound in northwestern Washington. These ingredients, natives

of our distinctive landscapes, are the true foods of place, and the real basis for cuisine.

The fascinating connection between food and place really took hold of me one chilly, drizzly November morning in Duluth,

Minnesota. I wandered downstairs from my hotel room to the

IntroductIon | 5

restaurant to grab some breakfast. I wasn’t expecting to eat anything special, but listed among the usual offerings of pancakes, oatmeal, French toast, omelets, and egg dishes was something

truly out of the ordinary: Lake Superior Lake Trout Cakes with Wild Rice Hash. As Duluth borders Lake Superior to the southeast and Rice Lake Reservoir to the northwest, the ingredients could not have been more local. Lake Superior lake trout is, obviously, indigenous to Lake Superior. Wild rice, at least this particular variety served for my breakfast, is endemic to the Great Lakes states. And the rice is still harvested the way Native Americans had done for centuries: collected by hand via canoe. While I usually spend a few minutes mulling over a menu, on this particular morning there was no hesitation or second-guessing. I ordered this locale’s interpretation of true American cuisine. I was about to experience a sense of place through my sense of taste.

As I waited for my meal, I pondered this notion of tasting

place through indigenous flavors. The inclusion of a dish on the menu made with ingredients native to Duluth struck me as a

sort of “obvious but only after the fact” genius on the chef’s part.

Of course! Restaurants around the country manically tout their locally sourced foods. What better way to showcase your local, sustainable food principles than to use those tasty ingredients that occur naturally in your environs?

But then why aren’t more restaurants doing this? Why was

I so surprised to see these unique local ingredients on a hotel restaurant menu? The absence of true American ingredients

from restaurant pantries—and even from our own kitchen cup-

boards—is confounding. After all, it was America’s great menu of indigenous foods that sustained Native American people (and presumably offered great gustatory delight) for millennia, from coast to coast, Canada to Mexico, Alaska and Hawaii. Maybe

Duluthians know something the rest of us do not.

The longer I thought about my meal, the more I mused

on the inimitable qualities of particular American landscapes,

6 | IntroductIon

their food crops, and the inextricable bonds between the two.

Why is wild rice so abundant in the northern reaches of Minnesota? What is it about Maine’s geography that makes it so

great for blueberries and lobster? What do Olympia oysters tell us about the relative health of Puget Sound’s estuaries? And

why do interior Alaskans prefer moose, reindeer, and ptarmigan while people in the lower forty-eight insist on beef, pork, and chicken?

In seeking answers to these questions, I have become con-

vinced that rediscovering these forgotten American foods is not only joyful but good for us and good for the environment. A

renewed interest in native ingredients could help alleviate some pressing concerns in our country, such as the loss of agricultural diversity and its ill effects on habitat and soil quality; the loss of dietary diversity and its ill effects on our physical health and longevity; increased “food miles” and “big agriculture”; plants and animals threatened with extinction; and our desire for distinct, identifiable landscapes, towns, and cities in the face of dulling homogenization.

I’m not advocating we abandon the dishes that currently

epitomize American cuisine, those that are relished regardless if we live in Portland, Oregon, or Portland, Maine. Heck, I love a good hamburger as much as any of my compatriots. (Though I

prefer the American bison’s leaner, finely marbled meat over the long-ago introduced—and fattier—beef cow for my patty.) But I do believe Americans are missing out on some real y great meals, simply because we have overlooked so many tantalizing foods

right in our own backyards. There is delight in discovering flavors native to your corner of the country. And I look forward to an evolution in American cuisine, when the dishes of Pittsburgh, by and large, are quite different from those of Little Rock or Bakers-field—a reflection of each community’s unique ingredients.

When breakfast arrived, the presentation was simple but the

flavor was extraordinary. Much of my gratification was admit-

IntroductIon | 7

tedly psychological, knowing that the food I was eating was as local as an urban locavore could hope for, harvested fresh from the landscape that girdled Duluth. But there was more than

intellectual satiety on my plate. The flavors were quite distinct, like nothing I had tasted before in America. The food tasted, well, wild, but a wildness that was truly unique to this country. The rice hash was nutty and chewy, with notes of earth

and woodsy spice. The trout was delicately flavored—as all trout is—but with a certain Lake Superior minerality, a flavor absent in farm-raised trout. “Now this is American food,” I thought. I was savoring the flavors of a particular American geography, flavors from those “local ingredients of the region.” My epiphany that morning was that I was literally consuming a small portion of the Great Lakes landscape: the westernmost shore of Lake

Superior. I was eating Duluth, and a city never tasted better.

A cornucoPIA In AppAlAchIA

Speaking of unique meals in different communities, think of a few foodie cities in America, places with mouthwateringly distinctive foods. What came to mind? New York, perhaps? Maybe

San Francisco? The French-inspired fare of New Orleans always excites the taste buds, as do the spicy flavors of Santa Fe. And let’s not forget the luxurious assortment of seafood in Seattle.

But I bet Prestonsburg, Kentucky, or Richwood, West Vir-

ginia, didn’t come to mind, nor did Albany, Ohio, or Chero-

kee, North Carolina. Yet in and around these diminutive towns nestled deep in the hollows of the Appalachians lie some of

America’s most delectable foods. Ramps, pawpaws, wild elk,

spicebush, sassafras, butternuts, hickory nuts, and our nation’s very own persimmons typify this distinct geography and are

proudly honored by Appalachian folk with annual celebrations.

These are real American ingredients, with incomparable fla-

vors and textures that would tickle any epicure’s taste buds and

8 | IntroductIon

excite food wonks like Simon Majumdar. Even so, Appalachia is hardly considered a mecca for foodies.

Appalachia is off our food radar not because of its culi-

nary landscape but because of the sea of ignorance engulfing

many Americans, including me. As a food snob who spent far

too much time in the culinary bubble of the Bay Area, I could have been the President of the PWKNAA (People Who Know

Nothing About Appalachia). Upon a quick glance, few outsid-

ers would think this rugged landscape possesses enough indig-

enous ingredients to craft an extensive menu of condiments,

salads, entrées, and desserts. My home state of California has an incredible diversity of landscapes: coastline, mountains, bays, estuaries, more mountains, deserts, still more mountains, and a big ol’ valley that supplies half of the nation’s fresh produce.

One would expect a large area like California, with so many

distinct landscapes, to harbor a diversity of foods. Appalachia—

which is about as long as California and encompasses a similar area—seemed so homogenous by comparison.

Boy, was I wrong. I was so ignorant of Appalachia, I didn’t

even know how to pronounce it. Before I share why Appalachia

is special from an ecological (and thus culinary) point of view, let me spare you the embarrassment of mispronouncing this region’s name, lest you bear the brunt of a real Appalachian conniption.

If you’re a West Coast dolt like me, you would say App-uh-

LAY- shuh. But say that to folks of Appalachia and they’ll whack you with a hickory stick. (Believe me—I know from experience.) I have since learned there are only two correct ways to pronounce Appalachia, depending on where one lives.

If you live in the mountains north of the Mason-Dixon line,

you would say App-uh-LAY- chuh, keeping the long ‘A’ in LAY

(as most in the West say it), but pronouncing that last syllable with a ch sound, as in church. But the people who most proudly identify with Appalachia live south of that line. And I was fortunate to be schooled by Jerry Coleman, a Cherokee descendant

IntroductIon | 9

in North Carolina, on how to properly pronounce this region’s moniker.

At first, I didn’t grasp it. I kept saying App-uh-LAY- chia, as in Chia pet. Jerry scolded me. “No! You still have it wrong. You are overenunciating and you’re pronouncing the third syllable like a Yankee!”

But I was determined to sound like a true Appalachian. So

Jerry recited a parable to help me with my pronunciation. It

goes like this: One day, in the Garden of Eden, God told Adam,

“Now look here, boy! Don’t you come near this tree, alright? If you do, I’ll throw an apple at ’cha.”

After my initial groans, I chuckled at Jerry’s colorful mne-

monic. I’ll never again stumble over the proper pronunciation of this uniquely American region. I can now say Appalachia like a true native. Well, a native south of the Mason-Dixon line, anyway.

I may not have known how to pronounce Appalachia when

I began writing this book, but I did understand how special

the region is. The reason fruits and nuts, meats and vegetables, spices and potherbs abound in these mountains is because of the region’s exceptionally diverse ecology. What makes Appalachia distinct from other landscapes of America is its sundry mix of broadleaf forests. Some of these contain relic plant species not seen anywhere else in North America—thanks to the age of the

Appalachian mountains (some 600 million years old) and their

escape from glaciation. A typical forest community in North

America is dominated by two or three canopy tree species. In

Appalachia, there can be as many as thirty canopy species at a single site. Biologists estimate that in the Blue Ridge Mountains alone (one of the three principal ranges that make up the core of the Appalachian Mountains), there are over one hundred native tree species and about two thousand understory plant species.

10 |

IntroductIon

Such diversity outside of the tropics is rare. In fact, southeastern China is the only other locale in the temperate climes that shares the same fertile mixture of broadleaf forests. (Hickory nuts and sassafras, for example, are foods indigenous to both Appalachia and southeastern China.)

A rich diversity of plant life begets a rich diversity of animal life. Appalachia is the center of Earth’s salamander diversity.

Five hundred species of vertebrates call Appalachia home. There are more species of shrews, darters, and endemic fishes in these mountain forests and streams than in any other region in North America. Appalachia’s freshwater communities are biologically the richest in the temperate world. In terms of biota richness, Appalachia is the tropical rain forest of America. And it, too, is critically endangered.

This is why it is important to bring American ingredients “to the fore,” as Majumdar advised—not only as a way to add flavor and joy to our meals but to instill an appreciation for those inextricable bonds I mentioned between food, place, and us. I’m no hotshot cook, but I have accepted Majumdar’s challenge none-theless. I endeavor to make better meals and learn more about American cuisine through American ingredients. But I have to

learn more about American landscapes first.

I begin my apprenticeship in rugged topography, in an area

of the country hardly known for haute cuisine. But that might change soon. As our hunger grows for unique flavors that are

locally sourced and naturally raised, Appalachia might someday be the apple of the epicure’s eye. In the meantime, I will revel in the discovery of these native flavors of one of America’s most special places. But I will also take time to reflect. In my pursuit of these unique foods, I have learned a lot about ecology and human culture. I think you will discover, as I did, that reintroducing American ingredients into American cuisine can ensure

the happiness and health of all American citizens: human, plant, and animal.

1

Albany, Ohio:

WAy doWn yonder

Pawpaws, perfectly ripe.

Fresh out of Ohio University and sporting a one-off degree

in Wholistic Transition to Sustainability, Chris Chmiel

was like many recent college graduates in America: educated,

ambitious, and unemployed. Chris’s career interests—as his

11

12 | eAtIng APPAlAchIA

conferred diploma suggests—were unique, and few occupations

resonated with his sustainable values. For Chris, graduation signaled commencement of a different sort—it was time to begin

soul-searching.

With his college sweetheart Michelle in tow, Chris wandered

the country seeking inspiration and insights into sustainable living. Finding none, he ventured south of the border, where he

found a fruit and a purpose on a farm. While working the Mexican soil, Chris discovered guanabana, a curious-looking native piece of produce that resembles a spiky avocado on steroids,

but with ivory white flesh and semi-glossy dark, almost black seeds. Guanabana, or soursop as it is called in the States, has an enchanting flavor that is highly revered in its homelands of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Chris, too, was

smitten with soursop. What intrigued him most was that this

odd-looking indigenous fruit had attained great commercial success. The fruit is delicious by itself, eaten out of hand. But with its characteristic pineapple tartness and banana creaminess, soursop lends luxurious tropical flavor to ice cream, smoothies, fruit juices and nectars, candy, and aguas frescas.

Inspired by his time on the farm and by the soursop, Chris

saw promise in sustainable food production. He and Michelle

returned to Ohio, to the town of their alma mater, to begin

a soul-lifting life together. But Chris needed a soul-lifting job first. He tried his hand at carpentry, landscaping, cable installa-tion, and cow milking, but none of these trades resonated with Chris’s ecological ambitions. These odd jobs did earn enough, however, for him and Michelle to buy a dozen and a half acres in Albany just down the James A. Rhodes Appalachian Highway from Ohio U. The property was a bona fide fixer-upper: no structure, a few trash heaps, and a patch of gangling trees with fallen, rotten fruit amid the duff. Pawpaw fruit, to be exact. And it was here that Chris recalled the soursop and recited in his head that proverb of eternal optimism.

AlbAny, ohIo: WAy doWn yonder | 13

“When lIFe hAnds you lemons . . .”

Chris saw great potential in the pawpaw. Here on his property was a true American fruit of incomparable flavor, texture, and aroma, abundantly provided free by Mother Nature without the

need for hoeing, weeding, fertilizing, or irrigating. But it was all going to waste. And not just those on Chris’s property; pawpaws throughout Appalachia moldered from neglect. The soursop is

celebrated all over the North American tropics, but here in temperate Appalachia, the pawpaw—cousin to the soursop—has

fallen into obscurity.

Chris had found his calling. He founded a business and con-

cocted catchy slogans to increase awareness of one of the oldest American foods now forgotten. “Getting pawpaws to the people” became the mission statement for Chris’s new enterprise, which also adopted the motto “Raising consciousness through

cuisine.” Chris named his new business Integration Acres, a

reflection of his belief that food, the environment, and we are one inextricable union.

Chris became yet anoth
moroccan recipes, order pizza online, paleo diet reviews, pizza to go, home brew store, . The recipe for Redemption Bitter (see page 15) is not much more complicated than a simple kit recipe, because it uses malt extract that has already been hopped by the manufacturer.

Basic Equipment

You will need a few pieces of basic equipment. If you buy a starter kit, much of what you need for basic brewing will be in it. In addition to what is shown at right, it’s always handy to have a few white food-grade plastic buckets kicking around for cleaning bottles, soaking equipment, and so forth. Even the most occasional brewer will soon acquire a sizable collection of miscellaneous gear — and then he has to find room to store it! Our philosophy in writing this book has been to find the easiest method to help the beginner make good beer. To do this we will often recommend buying a desirable tool, such as a Vinator or Auto-Siphon, right away rather than waiting and using a simpler but sometimes less satisfactory method.

Brew pot. A 16-quart stainless steel pot is fine for basic extract brewing.

Fermentation lock. A clear plastic airlock allows carbon dioxide to escape during fermentation but keeps air from reaching your beer.

Long-handled metal or plastic stirring spoon.

Medium-size stainless steel strainer. A metal strainer is useful for rinsing grains and straining spent hops from wort.

Plastic fermenting bucket with lid. A 6.7-gallon plastic fermenter usually comes with the equipment kit.

Thermometer. A thermometer, either a regular cooking thermometer (left) or a floating one (right), is useful for telling when it’s safe to pitch the yeast. Yeast can stand very cold temperatures, but anything above 90°F will kill it.

Timer. A kitchen timer helps you keep track of boiling times. Not essential — but definitely helpful.

Sanitize Everything!

The worst enemy of beer, and the most common cause of first-time-brewing failure, is contamination by microorganisms. The most important thing you can do for your beer is keep your brewing area clean and well sanitized. The standard in commercial breweries is close to operating-room cleanliness. This is necessary because beer-loving bacteria and wild yeast colonies build up wherever beer is present. Always wipe down the brewing area with a rag soaked in sanitizing solution before and after you brew.

When we started brewing we used a bleach solution to sanitize everything. Bleach is hard on the environment (and your body) and needs to be rinsed off thoroughly; luckily, other options are now available. We like to make up a couple of gallons of Star San solution in a spare plastic bucket and soak our equipment in it while boiling the wort. It takes only a minute or so of contact with Star San to kill microorganisms, and it doesn’t need to be rinsed off, which eliminates the possibility of contamination during rinsing. You can take your spoon out of the solution, stir your wort, and put it right back in without missing a beat. It’s also biodegradable and odorless.

Star San is long lasting in solution form and can be reused several times. If it’s not cloudy and foams up when agitated, we feel comfortable using it again. If diluted with deionized water, Star San solution can keep for 2 or 3 months. An 8-ounce bottle will make 32 gallons of solution, and it’s pretty cheap. The writing on the bottle is tiny, and the bottle itself is a little tricky. Remove the left-hand cap and gently squeeze the bottle to fill the small reservoir on top to the desired level. Because Star San is an acid-based product, it can leave rings on some countertops and can be hard on rubber, so it may affect some of your equipment after a period of use.

CLEANSERS AND SANITIZERS

All equipment must be clean before it can be sanitized. The following are just some of the options you have for cleansers and sanitizers.

Baking soda. Sodium bicarbonate is a nontoxic abrasive cleanser (not a sanitizer) that can be used to clean beer equipment such as carboys and brew pots.

Iodophor. This iodine-based sanitizer is effective for all types of brewing equipment. It is unlikely to produce any off-flavors. It requires no rinsing when diluted to correct concentration.

One Step. No rinsing is necessary when using this oxygen-based environmentally friendly cleanser/sanitizer. Dissolve 1 tablespoon of One Step in 1 gallon of warm water.

PBW (Powdered Brewery Wash). This alkali-based cleanser is used to remove stubborn brewing deposits. It also removes labels from beer bottles. Dissolve 1 ounce of PBW in 1 gallon of hot water and soak equipment overnight to clean.

Star San. This acid-based foaming sanitizer is odorless and flavorless and will not produce off-flavors. It sanitizes surfaces and equipment after 1 to 2 minutes of exposure. Dilute at a rate of 1⁄4 ounce Star San to 1 gallon of cold water.

OTHER USEFUL TOOLS

A sanitized, dedicated paint tray makes an excellent spot to rest your thermometer, long spoon, and strainer between uses. It is much easier to sanitize than, for instance, a dish rack.

A spray bottle full of sanitizing solution is useful both for sanitizing surfaces around the brewing area and sanitizing equipment that is too large or awkward to dip in the solution bucket.

BREWING AT A GLANCE

1. Sanitize your plastic fermenter bucket, lid, long-handled spoon, fermentation lock, strainer, and thermometer in a solution of water and Star San (1 gallon of water to 1⁄4 ounce Star San).

2. Add 11⁄2 gallons of cold water to your fermenting bucket.

3. Immerse the unopened can of malt extract in warm water.

4. Heat 11⁄2 gallons of cold water enough to melt malt extracts (100–120ºF).

5. Add malt extracts to the hot water and boil according to recipe. Add flavoring hops as required. Bring 1⁄2 gallon of rinse water to a boil.

6. Turn off heat and add aroma hops.

7. Pour boiled wort through strainer into fermenter. Rinse hops with boiled water.

8. Add cold water to make 5 gallons.

9. When wort has cooled to around 70ºF, pitch the yeast.

10. Attach fermentation lock and cover.

11. Ferment for 7 to 10 days.

12. Prime, bottle, and cap.

The First Recipe

For our first batch of beer, we are going to make a simple extract bitter. Bitter is the standard English pub beer and is a favorite of ours because it has a lot of character, despite its simplicity. Your basic “ordinary” bitter is moderate in alcohol and reddish gold in color, and can express a wide range of bitterness. The emphasis in this style is on the bittering hops. It’s popular with homebrewers because it’s fast and easy to brew. It is not a long-keeping beer, so you can brew it, drink it up, and make some more.

RECIPE

Redemption Bitter

All of these ingredients can be purchased at any brewstore.

Initial Gravity: 1.039–1.045

Final Gravity: 1.014–1.016

INGREDIENTS

3.3 pounds (1.5 kg) amber hopped malt extract syrup

2 pounds (907 g) plain light dry malt extract

1 ounce (28 g) East Kent Goldings flavoring hops

1⁄2 ounce (14 g) East Kent Goldings aroma hops

1 packet Fermentis Safale S-33 ale yeast

1⁄2 cup (120 ml) corn sugar or 3⁄4 cup (180 ml) dry malt extract for priming

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Sanitize your plastic fermenting bucket, lid, long-handled spoon, fermentation lock, strainer, and thermometer in a solution of Star San (1⁄4 ounce [7.4 ml] per 1 gallon [3.8 L] water). Mix the sanitizing solution in a separate 5-gallon (19 L) food-grade plastic bucket. Pour 1⁄2 gallon (1.9 L) into the fermenter bucket, seal with the lid, and slosh it around until the sides of the bucket and bottom of the lid are coated in foam. Return any unused solution to the mixing bucket and place the rest of your equipment in it. A few minutes of immersion should sanitize it thoroughly.

2. Add 11⁄2 gallons (5.7 L) cold water to the fermenting bucket. Seal with the lid and set aside.

3. Immerse the unopened can of malt extract in hot water for about 10 minutes to make it easier to work with. Trim off the top of the plastic bag of dry malt extract. This prevents steam from hydrating the extract and causing a sticky mess.

4. Heat 11⁄2 gallons (5.7 L) of cold water in the brew pot to a high enough temperature to melt the malt extracts (100–120°F/38–49°C).

5. Remove the brew pot from the heat. Pour the hopped malt extract into the brew pot and scrape any remaining syrup away from the sides of the can. Add the dry malt extract and stir well to dissolve. Return the brew pot to the heat and boil for 30 minutes.

Step 5

6. Add the flavoring hops. These will contribute flavor and aroma to the finished beer.

7. Remove the brew pot from the heat when the wort has boiled for 45 minutes, and add the aroma hops. Cover the pot and steep for 5 minutes. Allow the brew pot to cool until it can be safely handled.

8. Carefully pour the boiled wort through the strainer and into the fermenter.

Step 8

9. Rinse the spent hops with 1⁄2 gallon (1.9 L) 180°F (82°C) water.

10. Add enough cold water to make 5 gallons (19 L). (On a standard primary fermenter bucket, the 5-gallon mark is indicated by the thick plastic collar. It is also useful to mark gallon increments on the outside of the bucket with a permanent marker.) Stir thoroughly with the sanitized spoon to mix the water with the wort.

11. Measure the temperature of the wort. It needs to cool down to around 70°F (21°C) before you can add the yeast. Be sure to rinse the thermometer and shake it down; otherwise, it will give you a false reading. Temperatures of 90°F (32°C) and up are fatal to yeast; temperatures between 60°F and 70°F (15.5–21°C) are ideal for ales (a few degrees above or below that range is fine); lower temperatures are necessary for lagers.

12. Add the yeast and stir in gently with the sanitized spoon.

Step 12

13. Attach the fermenter lid and the fermentation lock. The fermentation lock must be filled with water. (The gasket in the lid is usually a pretty tight fit for the stem of the airlock. It helps to push against the gasket from the underside of the lid while twisting the airlock.)

Step 13

14. Allow to ferment for 7 to 10 days in a quiet spot, out of direct light, at temperatures between 60°F and 70°F (15.5–21°C) for ale, or between 45°F and 50°F (7–10°C) for lager.

15. Prime, bottle, and cap the beer once the fermentation is complete. Priming (page 24) is a necessary step for carbonation. This chore goes a lot faster if you have two people: one to fill the bottles and one to cap. From setup to cleanup, priming and bottling usually takes only an hour or so.

IS IT BEER YET?

The airlock, or fermentation lock, can be used to tell if the beer is finished. If bubbles have stopped coming out of the airlock, or if they appear only once every 90 seconds or longer, then the beer is ready to bottle.

If your beer is an ale, you should see yeast activity within 24 hours. Bubbles released by the fermentation lock will tell you that your wort is fermenting. Eventually, the bubbles will stop completely. A good rule of thumb is to allow the beer to sit for a few days after fermentation ceases before bottling, to allow the beer to “drop clear” — that is, for the yeast to become dormant and sink to the bottom of the fermenter.

BOTTLE HYGIENE

You can acquire bottles new and clean from your homebrew store, or get them used from the redemption center. We usually use brown 12-ounce beer bottles, but we are partial to any bail-top or 22-ounce or larger bottles that come our way. With old bail-tops you may have to replace the gaskets. Used bottles can be pretty scummy and will at least have to be rinsed out. A good way to get bottles clean is to soak them for a couple of days in brewery wash (PBW). This not only gets rid of any dried-on sediment but will even scour off the old labels. Rinse them thoroughly before sanitizing. Any tough spots can be scrubbed with a bottle brush. If a bottle is still not squeaky clean after this treatment, it gets recycled.

Always rinse out your bottles after use! This habit will make it much easier to clean them the next time around. We store ours between uses in heavy-duty wax produce boxes in the cellar, with a piece of cloth thrown over them to keep out dust and spiders.

Ingredients for Priming Beer

Corn sugar. Homebrew supply shops carry corn sugar for brewers. The corn sugar is used to prime the beer by giving the yeast an extra bit of food to digest while it is in the bottle.

Unflavored gelatin (optional). Gelatin is a fining or clarifying agent. Adding unboiled gelatin to the priming solution removes small particles of protein and yeast residues from the beer.

Bottling Equipment

For bottling, you will need the following equipment.

50 empty long-necked beer bottles. Use long-necked bottles that require an opener. The bottles should be brown; clear or green ones will admit too much light, giving your beer a skunky aroma.

Auto-Siphon. This plastic siphon is useful for racking beer to the bottling bucket or secondary fermenter. It comes in several different sizes.

Bottle washer. This is a U-shaped brass valve that screws into a faucet. The end of the valve points up, so you can invert the bottle or carboy and place it over the top. You can buy a separate adapter that will fit any faucet.

Capper. The wing capper shown here is a two-levered design.

Bottle caps. Ordinary crown caps work fine for bottling beer and are readily available at homebrew supply shops.

Long-handled spoon. Use a metal spoon. It will be the easiest kind to sanitize.

Filler wand. This is a plastic tube with a spring valve at one end.

Plastic bottling bucket with spigot. Equipment kits usually come with a bottling bucket. It can also be used as a secondary fermenter in a two-stage fermentation, which we will talk about in chapter 2.

Plastic tubing. A short length of 1⁄2-inch tubing comes with the equipment kit. You may find that longer tubing is easier to use.

Saucepans. You will need these to prepare the priming solution and gelatin.

Vinator. This plastic bottle washer that operates by hand-pumping is inexpensive, effective, and fun to use.

PROJECT

Bottling Your First Batch

1. Sanitize the equipment. Mix up a 1-gallon batch of Star San in a bucket. Soak your plastic bottling bucket, plastic tubing, and filler wand in sanitizing solution for at least 30 minutes. If you are using Star San, no rinsing is necessary. If you are using a bottling bucket, sanitize the spigot. Securely attach the filler wand and plastic tubing to the spigot.

2. Sanitize the bottles. You can’t sanitize something that isn’t clean, so make sure your bottles are clean before moving on to this step (see box, page 19). Add some sanitizing solution to your Vinator. Invert a bottle over the top of the Vinator and pump up and down a few times to thoroughly coat the inside of the bottle. Set the bottle down upright and do the next one. You should do only a half dozen at a time to keep them from drying out before they’re filled. Just before filling, turn the bottle upside down and give it a shake to get rid of any extra sanitizer. If you decide not to invest in a Vinator right away, you can sanitize the bottles by dunking them into a bucket of Star San, making sure that they get completely coated inside, and then emptying them out.

Step 2

3. Sanitize the bottle caps. There are many different ways to do this, but this method is what we recommend. Take a pint glass of Star San solution and put all of your bottle caps in it. As you fill the bottles, you can set a bottle cap on each one to prevent anything from falling into it. When all the bottles are filled, seal them with the capper. A warning about doing this: If you are using oxygen-fixing bottle caps, they are good only for about 10 minutes after they get wet, so this method won’t work with them. But the yeast remaining in the beer will remove any oxygen in the bottle as it works, so getting your caps well sanitized is really more important than their oxygen-reducing potential.

4. Siphon the fermented beer from the fermenter into the sanitized bottling bucket. Place the fermenter higher than the empty, sanitized bucket (see diagram).

Step 4

Many basic equipment kits now come with an Auto-Siphon, and we recommend that new brewers use this tool for siphoning from the fermenter to the bottling bucket, a process called “racking.” They come in a number of sizes, so get one for use with a 5-gallon bucket or carboy. The Auto-Siphon is easy to use, much more so than older methods of siphoning, and is less prone to contamination because you never touch the beer.

Sanitize the unit thoroughly with Star San and attach a length (5 to 6 feet) of sanitized tubing. Lower the Auto-Siphon about halfway into the liquid (to avoid bottom sediments) and give it a couple of pumps. The siphon will start easily. If an air bubble develops or the siphon quits, just pump it a few more times. Now, holding it diagonally, carefully lower the Auto-Siphon to the bottom of the fermenter. The cap at the base will keep out sediment. The process is hands free at this point and you can do something else while the siphoning progresses. You can also remove this cap to get more beer out, holding the Auto-Siphon just above the sediments.

PRIMING

Before you bottle, you will be “priming” the beer, which simply means adding sugar to the beer. Priming helps to carbonate the beer, by giving the yeast an extra bit of food (the sugar) to digest while it’s in the bottle.

The kind of sugar you want to use for priming is dextrose (corn sugar), rather than sucrose (cane sugar). Corn sugar is more readily fermented than household cane sugar and not so inclined to produce a “cidery”-tasting beer.

Note: Even corn sugar should not be used in excessive amounts, or the beer will suffer.

5. Add 3⁄4 cup (180 ml) corn sugar to 2 cups (475 ml) water to make the priming solution. Stir to dissolve, and bring to a boil.

Step 5

6. Heat 1⁄4 ounce of unflavored gelatin in 2 cups (475 ml) water. Do not boil. Stir to dissolve.

7. Add the priming solution and gelatin solution to the beer. Stir gently with a sanitized spoon.

Step 7

8. Move the now-full bottling bucket to a higher position so that gravity will help the beer to flow. Attach plastic tubing to the bottling bucket spigot. Assemble the sanitized filler wand and attach it to the plastic tubing. Open the spigot.

9. Fill the bottles. Press the filler wand against the bottom of the bottle to release beer. Lift up to shut off the flow. Leave approximately 1 inch of headspace in the bottle.

Step 9

10. Place a cap on the bottle so it sits evenly. Bring the handles of the capper together, so the jaws meet around the neck of the bottle. Push the handles apart until the cap seats. Now release. The cap will attach, and the weight of the bottle will pull it away from the capper.

Step 10

BEER ID

A simple way to identify beer is just to write the beer name initials and date on plain bottle caps with a magic marker: For instance, Monitor Doppelbock brewed on June 19, 2013, would be written “M.D. 6-19-13.” Then you can note what beer the initials refer to on a list tacked up on a wall in your beer cellar.

STORE AND AGE

Use cardboard case boxes to hold your beer (most homebrew batches will make two cases). Beer stores best in a cool, dark place, such as a cellar. Beers must be aged to allow natural carbonation to take place. Some of the fl

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