European Cookbook Series by Claude DeLucca [free ebooks]


  • Full Title : European Cookbook Series: Portuguese Famous Recipes
  • Autor: Claude DeLucca
  • Print Length: 148 pages
  • Publisher: SweeTaste Press
  • Publication Date: October 25, 2012
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B009X2QSLQ
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format: epub

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"European Cookbook Series: Portuguese Famous Recipes" containing more than 70 famous recipes from Portuguese, in some big categories: Soups (Soup of a thousand infants, Chicken soup, Shrimp soup, Almond soup, etc.), Fish (Fresh cod fish with rice, Baked fish, Fish lusitania style, Fishwife’s stew, Small mackerel grilled, Stuffed salmon, etc.), Eggs (Ovos com molho do peixe, Eggs in portuguese style), Meat dishes (Meat balls, Little beefsteaks, pan-fried, Minced beef, Meat flowers, Portuguese curry, Baked kid, etc.), Sauces (Portuguese cooking sauce, Portuguese sauce for meats, Olive sauce for meats), Vegetables (Nourishing rice, Summer squash, Shelled green beans, Spinach with sardines), Desserts (Almond cake, Cake to eat with wine, Fried cream, Almond pie, Chocolate pudding, Apple pudding, Rice pudding, Bread pudding, Maiden’s kisses, Tinder-boxes, etc.), Sweet sauces (Chocolate sauce, Lemon sauce, Red wine sauce, Prune or plum sauce) and more…

 

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Keywords

vietnamese coffee, baked chicken recipes, grilled chicken recipes, latest health news, chinese chicken dishes, veal meat, apple juice, asian soup, cabernet merlot, star wars birthday cake, bread shop, cake lady, the candy store, gourmet desserts, cooking app, red wine types, vegetarian foods, chinese stir fry recipe, bbq world, cuban coffee,
rst start out as a pastry apprentice, and even when you

chances or ten. It really is up to you and how much you

get your first actual pastry chef job, it is OK to emulate

believe in the original idea.

other pastry chef’s desserts. It is not a crime. Just don’t

I want to make sure that you know and understand

make it a constant habit; otherwise, you will not be able to

the most important quality aspect of a finished dessert

develop your own style. Style is something you can truly

before you get started. It is not flavor, texture, or aesthetic.

call your own and is what will distinguish you from other

The most important quality is wholesomeness. That means

pastry chefs. A unique style is easier to develop than a

that whatever you make, it should be beneficial and gen-

new dish. And, if you are the creative source for a new

erally good for your customers. If you work in sanitary con-

technique or a new dish that no one has seen before, you

ditions and you follow food safety principles, it will be the

just might be destined for greatness. Most of the ideas

most important aspect of your food. After wholesomeness,

that are considered innovative or revolutionary really just

then you can think of flavor, texture, and aesthetics. Here

come from the chef taking a different approach, or looking

is what I explain to my staff: People are going to come to

at something in a different way than anyone else ever

our restaurant, order our food, put the food we made into

has. According to Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian economist

their bodies, and then pay with their hard-earned money.

and sociologist from the late nineteenth century, an idea

There is nothing more personal than that, and we should

is nothing more or less than a new combination of old

be humbled by this privilege. Think of how many people

elements that are related. But it is your capacity to form

can do what we do. The trust that your customers put in

old elements into new combinations and your ability to

you is enormous, and you need to respect that.

see the relationships between those elements that will

determine the creation of a “new” idea. Take the now

INTRODUCTION

vii

Ch1

THE BASIC ELEMENTS

The word dessert comes from desservir, a French term that means “to remove that which has been served.” Essentially,

it is what is offered to the guests after everything on the ta-

ble has been cleared. The meaning has evolved to an extent,

but the principle has not. Once your entrée or last course

has been cleared, the utensils and all glassware have been

removed, and the table has been “crumbed,” then the des-

sert is served.

It is important to understand that dessert can be presented and served in many different ways and in a variety of environments. Each setting will have a style or type of dessert that is ideal and makes the most sense to maintain the quality of the product.

Dessert is vastly more far-reaching now than it ever has been; in fact, it has become very complex and multifaceted. For all intents and purposes, dessert is the final course, but the context in which dessert can be categorized is more than something you have after your entrée.

There may be courses that border the lines of sweet and savory but cannot be categorized as dessert per se. As a pastry chef, you need to really understand how far desserts can be broken down and what makes the most sense for your operation. Is your establishment high end, and does it require a large menu or a short menu? Do you offer pre-desserts or only desserts? Can your customers choose from a cake menu for a special occasion? Can you offer petits fours, and if so, how many and what is a good variety?

One of the questions asked most frequently by pastry cooks and pastry students is: How

does one come up with flavor combinations? The short answer is that after a few years of manipulating and tasting food, not just where you work but in as many places as you can manage, you will come to your own conclusions and figure out what you like and dislike. This is mostly accurate, but it doesn’t mean that because you like a particular flavor combination, everyone else is going to like it. This is one of the biggest reasons why some pastry chefs are successful and some are not: If your flavors work well together, people will want to eat your desserts. If they do not, they won’t. We make desserts for people to eat and enjoy.

The comprehensive table of flavors on pages 61 to 84 is codified in the following way to

help explain which flavors complement each other.

■■

Ingredient name (ingredients are divided into categories—fruit, herbs, spices, flavorings, and so forth—and will contain some nontraditional ingredients)

■■

Type of flavor: frontal, background, or mild

■■

Flavor compatibility

2

THE ELEMENTS OF DESSERT

There is also a table of the most frequently used pastry preparations and components, which is meant to be used as a reference to begin the creative process. You can use this to visualize all that you can produce, and then it is just a matter of matching the components properly. Essentially, this is what you will need to know to create your own desserts:

■■

The basic pastry methods

■■

The components of pastry

■■

Flavors and textures

■■

The principles of dessert composition

■■

The principles of menu composition and item enunciation

These are all of the key points in this chapter and are the pillars or the basis of your technical knowledge. The experience part is entirely in your hands.

THE BASIC PASTRY METHODS

As with anything, pastry is all about the foundations you have acquired through experience.

Once you have become comfortable with them, you should be able to move on to more elabo-

rate and complex techniques. This is similar to what the artist Pablo Picasso did during his career. He was a master of technique. He knew how to use different materials and he also knew how to construct a canvas with his own hands. His style changed as he experimented with

different theories, techniques, and ideas until he was able to start an entirely new movement.

The point is, he did not jump into Cubism right away. He established a solid technical foundation beforehand. The same is true in pastry.

This section will cover all of the basic information you need to know about the most widely used pastry methods. All of these methods will be used throughout the book and have been

organized alphabetically for ease of use. The recipes throughout the book will cross-reference these methods as needed.

THE BLENDING METHOD

This method is most commonly used for quick breads in which two or more ingredients are

combined just until they are evenly mixed. The fat used is a liquid fat. We will be applying this method to certain sponge cakes, such as the Blackout Cake on page 303 and the Devil’s Food Cake on page 256.

THE BASIC ELEMENTS

3

THE BLENDING METHOD IS AS FOLLOWS:

1.

In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a paddle attachment, combine all of the liquid ingredients on medium speed. Some recipes require a whip instead; it depends on the

density of the final mass—will it be loose like a light génoise, or dense like a pain de gênes?

2.

Sift all of the dry ingredients together.

3.

Add the dry ingredients to the liquid ingredients and mix on low speed.

4.

Mix until just incorporated, scraping the bowl as necessary. Don’t overmix, since this can cause gluten development in the flour and make the final product denser than intended.

5.

Add the garnish at the end if needed in the recipe. The garnish is not obligatory, but in some cases a recipe will call for one. Some examples are chopped dried fruit or nuts.

THE CREAMING METHOD

Used for certain cakes (such as pound cake) and doughs (most cookies and tart doughs are

made with this method), the creaming method is a mixing method in which softened fat (generally butter) and sugar are vigorously combined, either manually or mechanically, to incorporate air. This trapped air is partially responsible for the leavening of the product. The main ingredients used are sugar, fat, eggs, and flour. The sugar is granulated to assist in incorporating air into the mixture. Superfine sugar or bakers’ sugar yields better results than regular granulated; the sugar dissolves better and faster into the fat because the crystals are smaller. The fat should be between 21°C/70°F and 22°C/72°F. This temperature will allow it to take air in more readily than if it were cold. Oil should not be used since it does not have the capacity to trap air with this mixing method. Vegetable shortenings and animal fats such as lard and duck fat may be used, but the end result will vary. The eggs should be warmed over a hot water bath to between 26°C/80°F and 29°C/85°F. They are usually added slowly into the butter in order to create an emulsion, and their warm temperature makes the mixing process more efficient. If the eggs are colder, the butter will seize and the emulsion will break. If the eggs are warmer, they will soften the butter too much and any trapped air would escape, resulting in a flat product. Milk, water, or fruit juices may be added to the eggs, but the eggs cannot be completely replaced. The flour that is used should be a low-protein flour, such as pastry or cake flour, but sometimes an all-purpose flour is also used. Other dry ingredients may be combined with the flour for flavor and texture, such as ground nuts, dried fruit, or cocoa powder.

THE CREAMING METHOD IS AS FOLLOWS:

1.

Soften the butter. It can be left out of the refrigerator for 2 hours before using, or it can be softened in the microwave in short intervals of time until the desired temperature is

reached.

2.

Warm the eggs over a hot water bath to between 26°C/80°F and 29°C/85°F. Reserve until

needed.

4

THE ELEMENTS OF DESSERT

3.

In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a paddle attachment, mix the butter and sugar together on medium speed until there are no lumps of butter or sugar. Five to 10 minutes

is appropriate for an item such as a pound cake, since this action makes the butter fluffier and aerates it as well as helps grind the sugar into the butter. If you are making a tart dough or cookie dough, simply mix the butter and sugar until both components are very well incorporated; this takes less than 2 minutes on high speed. Stop the mixer regularly to scrape

down the sides and bottom of the bowl; this will ensure a homogenous mix.

4.

Add the eggs in four to six increments. After each addition, allow the mixer to turn for a minute or more to incorporate eggs; in smaller batches the time between egg additions will decrease. It is sufficient to wait for the eggs to be fully incorporated into the butter-sugar mixture.

5.

Scrape down the sides and bottom of the bowl between egg additions. Continue adding the

eggs until they are fully incorporated.

6.

Stop the mixer, and then add the flour all at once. Mix on low speed to just incorporate the flour.

7.

Scrape the bowl several times to ensure thorough mixing. If you are adding a solid garnish, it is at this moment when it should be added.

8.

Do not overmix. This will cause the gluten in the flour to develop, negatively affecting the product. In cakes such as pound cake, it will produce a dense cake, and in cookies, it will cause them to spread too much when they bake.

THE CUSTARD METHOD

A custard is defined as a dairy product that is thickened with eggs (crème brûlée, crème anglaise, crème caramel, flan, quiche) or with eggs and starch (pastry cream, chocolate pudding).

It is a usually sweet, very moist, tender gel of egg protein. Custards are typically classified as boiled, stirred, and baked and are grouped in this book under the boiled custard or pastry cream, baked custard, or stirred custard or anglaise methods.

A boiled custard is thickened with eggs and cornstarch over direct heat. The idea is that

heat will coagulate the proteins in the starch and gelatinize the cornstarch, which will in turn thicken the liquid, which is generally milk. The mixture, in theory, will have to boil for this to happen, but as you will read in the method below, boiling is not necessary. There is a way to make a thick, smooth pastry cream without submitting it to intense heat. Because we do not need to boil this custard, it is not necessary to call it a boiled custard; we will simply call it pastry cream.

This method can get extremely complicated if you do not follow the steps to the most

exact detail. It is not easier than the traditional boiled custard method; it is different and not without its complications. However, it turns out a superior-quality custard with a very smooth mouthfeel.

There are some cons to this method. The first is that there is an enzyme in the egg yolk

called amylase that breaks the cornstarch in the pastry cream down into sugar (retrogradation).

The only way to neutralize this enzyme is by boiling the egg yolk, which can be done with the

THE BASIC ELEMENTS

5

boiled custard method. However, the custard made by the following method will not be affected within 48 hours of making the pastry cream. Making too much pastry cream is not necessarily ideal, so this method is well suited for the pastry shop. The second con is that this custard is cooked until all the proteins are just cooked and no further, which means that the addition of a flavored liquid such as rum could potentially loosen the consistency of the custard too much.

Stirred custards are similar to boiled custards in that they are cooked over direct heat,

but they differ in that they do not need to boil to reach the desired consistency (between 80°C/175°F to 85°C/185°F) and are thickened only by eggs. The most common example is

crème anglaise.

Baked custards use only eggs and, as the name indicates, are baked in order to coagulate

the egg protein. They are usually baked inside a ramekin in a hot water bath in an oven between 135°C/275°F and 160°C/325°F.

THE BOILED CUSTARD OR PASTRY CREAM METHOD IS AS FOLLOWS:

1.

Warm the eggs to 21°C/70°F in a bowl over a hot water bath. Set aside. This is an important step, since it will help the egg yolks coagulate faster than if they were refrigerator cold (see Step 5).

2.

Pour the first amount of milk in a deep pot or rondeau. It should be deep enough to hold the milk when it is at a rolling boil. Add the full amount of sugar, along with any flavors (vanilla, coffee, and so forth).

3.

In a small bowl, combine the cornstarch with the second, smaller amount of milk. Mix well.

Whisk in the tempered egg yolks.

Warm the first amount of milk along with the

Dump the milk in one motion into the egg,

The finished pastry cream will be thick, smooth,

sugar and any flavorings in a large deep pot.

second amount of milk, and cornstarch mixture,

and glossy.

Bring the mixture to a rolling boil.

whisking vigorously for 1 minute without

stopping.

6

THE ELEMENTS OF DESSERT

4.

Pour through a fine-mesh sieve into a large bowl. The bowl should be large enough to hold

the entire amount of milk that is in the pot, but it should not be so big that it cools down the hot milk too much once it is added to the bowl.

5.

Bring the milk and sugar to a rolling boil. Let it boil for 10 seconds, and then, in one motion (very important step: It must be one dumping motion, not a slow pour), dump it into the

bowl with the yolks, cornstarch, and milk while whisking vigorously (preferably another person is doing the whisking while you dump). It is imperative that you do not hesitate when

dumping the milk in one motion and that you do not use a slow pour; this is necessary in

order to bring the temperature of the ingredients in the bowl up high enough to coagulate

the protein in the egg yolks and gelatinize the cornstarch so it will thicken. Stir for about 1

minute without stopping. This is another very important step; if you stop even for a second to switch hands because your arm is tired, it may not work out.

6.

Cover the pastry cream with plastic wrap and let it cool down over an ice water bath.

NOTE Common examples of items made from this method are pastry cream, puddings, and coconut cream pie base.

The Baked Custard Method

There are two approaches to this method. The first should be used if the base is going to be baked right away, and the second if the base is to be reserved to cook at a different time.

METHOD 1 IS AS FOLLOWS:

1.

Preheat a convection or static oven to 135°C/275°F.

2.

Place the ramekins (or other vessel in which the custard will be baked) in a sheet pan or

hotel pan. The ramekins or the baking vessel should be shorter than the sheet pan or hotel pan, because you will have to pour water into the pan, and the ramekin or baking vessel

needs to be surrounded by water to bake the custard properly.

3.

In a sauce pot, combine all of the milk (or the milk and heavy cream mix) with half the sugar and any flavorings (vanilla, cinnamon, and so forth).

4.

Combine the egg yolks and the other half of the sugar in a bowl. The bowl should be large

enough to hold all of the components of the recipe.

5.

Bring the milk (or milk with heavy cream) to a boil. Turn off the heat, and slowly pour all of this liquid into the bowl with the egg yolks and sugar while whisking. This process is known as tempering the egg yolks, in which the eggs are brought up to a high temperature without coagulating the proteins in them, which would result in a lumpy base.

6.

Pass the mixture through a fine-mesh sieve. Pour into the prepared ramekins or vessel. A

funnel gun works well for portion control. Fill nearly to the top.

7.

Place the sheet pan or hotel pan in the oven. Pour hot water into it, being careful not to get any into the custard base. The water should come up to the same level the custard is inside the ramekins or baking vessel. If it is too low, the “exposed” custard will overbake, since it will come into direct contact with the heat from the oven.

THE BASIC ELEMENTS

7

8.

Bake until you obtain a gelatinous jiggle. This means is that if you tap or gently move the ramekins or baking vessel, the custard will jiggle. This is because the protein in the eggs has coagulated just enough to have set but is still smooth and elastic. If it still sloshes around, it means the custard needs to bake further. If it is beyond a gelatinous jiggle and the surface does not look smooth, the custard is overbaked, and at this point there is no way to fix it.

9.

Once the custard has baked, take the sheet pan or hotel pan out of the oven (carefully so as to not spill any water into the ramekins), and take the ramekins or baking vessel out of the water. Place them on a clean sheet pan and let them cool at room temperature. Once they

are cool, reserve refrigerated, covered well with plastic wrap. Discard after 2 days.

NOTES Some chefs prefer to cover the hotel pan with foil, which can in fact speed up the baking process. This is not a bad practice, but it will add moisture to the surface of the custard, and that can be detrimental for items like crème brûlée, since it will be very complicated to get the sugar to caramelize over a wet surface. However, this method works well if you are pressed for time.

METHOD 2 IS AS FOLLOWS:

1.

Prepare an ice water bath. Infuse the milk (or milk and heavy cream mixture) with the de-

sired flavor; stir in the sugar while it is hot in order to dissolve it completely. Pass through a fine-mesh

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