Food Packaging Food Contact Material* Typical Migrants Typical uses
Plastic Foil PET (polyethylene terephthalate)
  • Formaldehyde [1]
  • Acetaldehyde [1]
  • Antimony [2]
  • UV Stabilizers [3]
  • Polybrominated Dimethylesters (PBDE) [4]
 Joghurt cup lids
PE
  • Polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) [5]
  • Nonylphenol [6]
Freezer bags, frozen  poultry and ham bags, prepackaged fresh produce, food storage containers [7, 8]
PVC
  • Vinyl chloride [9]
  • Organo tins [10]
  • Adipates [11]
  • Plasticiser [11, 12]
  • nonylphenol [13]
Shrink foil, shrink foil prepackaged meat, cheese, fruit and vegetables [8]
HDPE
  • Antimony [4]
  • Polybrominated Dimethylesters (PBDE) [11]
Milk, dairy products [8]
Cellulose
  • Triacetin [14]
Meat packaging [8]
Plastic bottle PET (polyethylene terephthalate)
  • Formaldehyde [1]
  • Acetaldehyde [1]
  • Antimony [4, 15]
  • UV Stabilizers [3]
  • Adipates [16]
  • Phthalates [16]
  • Polybrominated Dimethylesters (PBDE) [4]
Soft drinks, CSD** (single use) [8]
PC (polycarbonate)
  • Bisphenol A [14, 17]
  • Antimony [4]
  • Polybrominated dimethylethers (PBDE) [2, 4]
  • 4-nonylphenol [17]
Repeated use water bottles, baby feeding bottles [14]
PVC (polyvinylchloride)
  • Vinyl chloride [9]
  • Plasticiser [12]
  • Organo tins [10]
  • Nonylphenol [4, 18, 19]
Water and soft drink bottles (single use)[14]
Plastic trays and inserts PVC (polyvinylchloride)
  • Vinyl chloride [9]
  • Plasticiser [12]
  • Organo tins [10]
  • Plasticiser [11, 12]
  • Nonylphenol [18, 19],
Chocolate box  inserts, food trays, biscuit tins[14]
PS (polystyrene)
  • Styrene [20] (found for cups)
  • Styrene trimers [21]
  • Polybrominated dimethylesters (PBDE) [4]
Yoghurt, dairy product, honey, syrup and ice cream, marmalade and jam tubs and containers;trays for prepackaged meat and fruit[14]
Plastic trays(oven proof) PET (polyethylene terephthalate)
  • Formaldehyde [1, 15]
  • Acetaldehyde [1, 15]
  • Antimony [4]
  • UV Stabilizers [3]
oven proof or microwavable food
Plastic cups PP (polypropylene)
  • Polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) [5]
  • Erucamide, oleamide [7]
  • Antioxidants [7]
  • Phthalates [7]
PS (Polystyrene)
  • Styrene [20]
  • Styrene trimers [21]
  • Polybrominated dimethylesters PBDE [4]
Vending cups [14]
Plastic pouches Aluminium
  • Aluminium [8]
PP (polypropylene)
  • Polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) [5]
  • Erucamide, oleamide [7]
  • Antioxidants [7]
Crisps, biscuits, snack foods, sugar,grains and vegetables[14]
PET
  • Formaldehyde [1, 15]
  • Acetaldehyde [1, 15]
  • Antimony [15]
  • UV Stabilizers [3]
Boil in the bag food [8]

*Layer in direct contact with food
** carbonated soft drinks

References

1. Mutsuga, M., et al., . Food Addit Contam, 2005. 22(8):783-789.

2. Andra, S.S. and K.C. Makris, . Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 2012. 30(2):107-151.

3. Begley, T.H., et al., . Food Addit Contam, 2004. 21(10):1007-1014.

4. Andra, S.S., et al., .Environment International, 2012. 38(1):45-53.

5. Biedermann-Brem, S., et al., . Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2012. 29(3):449-460.

6. Alfirevic, M., et al., . Acta Chimica Slovenica, 2011. 58(1):127-133.

7. Kawamura, Y., et al., . Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, 2000. 41(2):154-161.

8. Crompton, T.R., 2007, Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Smithers Rapra Technology Limited

9. Benfenati, E., et al., . Food Chem Toxicol, 1991. 29(2):131-134.

10. Papaspyrou, S.D., et al., Determination of migration of n-butyltins and n-octyltins to food simulants by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Appl Organometal Chem, 2007. 21:412–424.

11. Goulas, A.E., A. Kokkinos, and M.G. Kontominas, Effect of gamma-radiation on migration behaviour of dioctyladipate and acetyltributylcitrate plasticizers from food-grade PVC and PVDC/PVC films into olive oil. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch, 1995. 201(1):74-78.

12. Petersen, J.H. and L.K. Jensen, . Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2010. 27(11):1608-1616.

13. Votavova, L., et al., . Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2009. 27(4):293-299.

14. Sendón García, R., et al.,  Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2006. 17(7):354-366.

15. Bach, C., et al., . Water Res, 2012. 46(3):571-583.

16. Schmid, P., et al.,  Water Res, 2008. 42(20):5054-5060.

17. Guart, A., et al., . Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, 2011. 28(5):676-685.

18. Bradley, E., , F.S. Agency, Editor 2010 19. Inoue, K., et al.,  Food Addit Contam, 2001. 18(2):157-164.

20. Ahmad, M. and A.S. Bajahlan, . J Environ Sci (China), 2007. 19(4):421-426.

21. Choi, J.O., et al., . Food Addit Contam, 2005. 22(7):693-699.