Food Safety Management in China by Shaosheng Jin, pdf, 9814447757


  • Full Title : Food Safety Management in China: A Perspective from Food Quality Control System
  • Autor: Shaosheng Jin
  • Print Length: 240 pages
  • Publisher: Wspc/Zjup
  • Publication Date: 
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 9814447757
  • ISBN-13: 978-9814447751
  • Download File Format: pdf

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In recent years, China has taken a number of effective measures to strengthen the supervision of food quality and safety, but food safety incidents still occur sometimes. The recurrence and intractability of such incidents suggest that, in addition to the imperfect supervision system, the greatest obstacle to China’s food quality safety management is that China’s “farm to fork” food supply chain has too many stages, the members on the supply chain have not formed a stable strategic and cooperative relation, and on the other hand, during the transitional period, some practitioners lack social responsibility. Therefore, China’s food quality safety management and the establishment of food quality and safety traceability system should follow the development trend of international food quality and safety supervision, and combine with the establishment of China’s agricultural industrialization and standardization, integrate China’s existing but isolated effective measures.To this end, this book chooses important agricultural products as the subjects to be investigated. From an “integrated” vertical perspective of the supply chain and according to the degree of industrialization of different products, this book carries out empirical analysis of the construction of food quality and safety control system, such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) quality control system and food quality and safety traceability system. It deeply analyzes and straightens out the dynamic mechanism and the performance of different business entities implementing the food quality and safety management system. The book puts forward ideas and suggestions to establish long-term effective food quality and safety management system, which can provide the scientific basis for the government to design food quality and safety management policies.

 

From the Inside Flap

In recent years, China has taken a number of effective measures to strengthen the supervision of food quality and safety, but food safety incidents still occur sometimes. The recurrence and intractability of such incidents suggest that, in addition to the imperfect supervision system, the greatest obstacle to China’s food quality safety management is that China’s “farm to fork” food supply chain has too many stages, the members on the supply chain have not formed a stable strategic and cooperative relation, and on the other hand, during the transitional period, some practitioners lack social responsibility. Therefore, China’s food quality safety management and the establishment of food quality and safety traceability system should follow the development trend of international food quality and safety supervision, and combine with the establishment of China’s agricultural industrialization and standardization, integrate China’s existing but isolated effective measures.

To this end, this book chooses important agricultural products as the subjects to be investigated. From an “integrated” vertical perspective of the supply chain and according to the degree of industrialization of different products, this book carries out empirical analysis of the construction of food quality and safety control system, such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) quality control system and food quality and safety traceability system. It deeply analyzes and straightens out the dynamic mechanism and the performance of different business entities implementing the food quality and safety management system. The book puts forward ideas and suggestions to establish long-term effective food quality and safety management system, which can provide the scientific basis for the government to design food quality and safety management policies.

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coffee nearby, beer supplies, ribs restaurant, indonesian recipes, vegan pancake recipe, the expense of eating out has moved from the frequent to the occasional category in the monthly budget; cooking at home is a far less costly way to spend time with friends than eating at a fancy restaurant. Others of us are concerned about the quality of the ingredients we feed our family, and cooking at home, with food you’ve chosen with care from trusted sources—maybe even from the farmer who raised it—ensures you know exactly what you are eating.

But all those good reasons aside, home cooking is a way to express your love for family and friends, and to make time in your life, no matter how full, for togetherness and new traditions. I hope this book will encourage you to spend a bit more time around the table, and to enjoy every moment—and every bite.

NOTE: Classic recipe titles are set in orange and have this symbol: .

Modern recipe titles are set in green.

Cheese-Stuffed Dates with Prosciutto

Italian Fried Olives

Whole-Wheat Pita Chips with Mascarpone-Chive Dip

Roasted Eggplant and White Bean Crostini

Artichoke and Bean Bruschetta

Pea Pesto Crostini

Tomato Basil Tartlets

Stuffed Baby Peppers

Smoked Salmon and Apple Carpaccio

Sautéed Shrimp Cocktail

Fried Cheese-Stuffed Zucchini Blossoms

Beef Skewers with Cherry Tomatoes and Parsley Sauce

In this country appetizers are synonymous with restaurant food or party fare; but Italians take a much more relaxed approach to starters. Even a casual meal at home generally begins with an antipasto or two, something colorful and light that can be eaten in a couple of bites, perhaps on a small toast slice. While some antipasti may include fish or perhaps a bit of cured meat, most are vegetable based and reflect the seasons. Either way they are a beautiful and delicious way to start off a meal without filling you up.

I love to set out my own spread of antipasti for a cocktail gathering or a casual dinner, and classic bar snacks like Italian Fried Olives, which are easy to pop in your mouth, and Fried Cheese-Stuffed Zucchini Blossoms are a big hit. I always include at least one kind of crostini or bruschetta, and I top them with something brightly flavored and fresh tasting, like green pea pesto; the vibrant green color is so appealing. For a more formal affair, though, I like to do a plated first course, giving one of my favorite Italian dishes an update. Carpaccio, for instance, is typically made with meat, but I prefer to use smoked salmon; it’s light and clean, and it’s readily available all year long.

Cheese-Stuffed Dates with Prosciutto

The sweetest, best kind of dates are Medjools. They’re large, so they are easy to fill, meaty, and chewy. Stuffed with goat cheese and wrapped in prosciutto, they provide a perfect sweet-salty mouthful in every bite. Serve these with a crisp white wine as the ideal before-dinner tidbit.

¼ cup (2 ounces) goat cheese, at room temperature

¼ cup (2 ounces) mascarpone cheese, at room temperature

¼ cup finely chopped fresh basil leaves

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

16 Medjool dates (12 ounces)

8 thin slices prosciutto, halved lengthwise

special equipment

16 toothpicks or cocktail picks

In a small bowl, mix together the cheeses and basil. Season with salt and pepper.

With a knife, make a lengthwise incision in each date. Gently open the dates slightly and remove the pits. Spoon about ½ teaspoon cheese mixture inside each one. Close the dates around the filling. Wrap a piece of prosciutto around each date and secure with a toothpick.

Arrange the stuffed dates on a platter and serve.

Olives stuffed with cheese and fried are a classic bar snack commonly found in Naples and in Sicily. I like to mix the Gorgonzola with a bit of ricotta to tame its strong flavor. Unlike most fried foods, these can be made ahead of time and they will still be delicious a good while later. Pile them on a platter for a party and watch them disappear.

¼ cup (1 ounce) crumbled Gorgonzola cheese, at room temperature

¼ cup whole-milk ricotta cheese, at room temperature

1½ teaspoons dried thyme

1½ teaspoons grated lemon zest (from 1 lemon)

20 pitted medium to large green olives, rinsed and thoroughly dried

¼ cup all-purpose flour

1 large egg

½ cup plain dried bread crumbs

Vegetable oil, for frying

special equipment

A pastry bag fitted with a ¼-inch round plain tip

In a small bowl, combine the cheeses, thyme, and lemon zest. Spoon into the pastry bag. Pipe the cheese mixture into each olive.

Put the flour into a small bowl. Lightly beat the egg in another small bowl and put the bread crumbs in a third small bowl. Working in batches, dredge the olives in the flour. Using a slotted spoon, remove the olives and place in the bowl with the beaten egg. Coat the olives with the egg and then transfer to the bowl of bread crumbs. Coat the olives with the bread crumbs.

In a large heavy-bottomed saucepan, pour enough oil to fill the pan about a third of the way. Heat over medium heat until a deep-frying thermometer inserted in the oil reaches 350°F. (If you don’t have a thermometer, toss in a cube of bread; it will brown in about 3 minutes and, when it does, the oil is ready.) Fry the olives, in batches, for 30 to 45 seconds, until golden brown. Drain the fried olives on paper towels. Cool for at least 5 minutes before serving.

It’s no secret that I love mascarpone cheese—and who doesn’t love bacon? Stir them together and you have a super-creamy, elegant dip that tastes like the most decadently topped baked potato you’ve ever had. The mix is surprisingly versatile, too: thin it down a bit with milk and use it as a dressing for greens or a sauce for salmon or chicken.

4 whole-wheat pita breads

2 tablespoons olive oil

1 teaspoon dried oregano

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

4 strips bacon, cooked until crisp, finely chopped

1 cup (8 ounces) mascarpone cheese, at room temperature

¾ cup sour cream

¼ cup chopped fresh chives

Place an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 450°F.

Cut each pita into 8 wedges. Arrange the pita wedges in a single layer on a rimmed baking sheet. Brush with the oil, then sprinkle with the oregano, ½ teaspoon salt, and ½ teaspoon pepper. Bake for 5 to 8 minutes, until crisp and golden. Set aside to cool.

In a medium bowl, combine the bacon, mascarpone cheese, sour cream, and chives. Season with salt and pepper. Transfer the dip to a serving bowl.

Arrange the pita chips and dip on a platter and serve.

bruschetta & crostini

The terms bruschetta and crostini are often used interchangeably. But while both refer to a piece of grilled or toasted bread with a savory topping and are typically served as antipasti, there are in fact diff erences between the two, namely in size and presentation.

The word bruschetta comes from the Italian verb bruscare, which means to roast over hot coals. Grilling thick slices of bread and then rubbing them with garlic or half of a tomato was a common way for frugal housewives to extend the life of stale bread. Over time bruschetta evolved into more than just grilled bread, as ingredients such as prosciutto, mozzarella, roasted peppers, and cured meats were added to the toppings. Because the base is a fairly large, thick bread slice, bruschetta tends to have a more rustic appearance and can stand up to hearty toppings; it may be eaten by hand but can also be served on a plate with a knife and fork.

Crostini, on the other hand, are more often toasted in the oven than grilled, and tend to be smaller and thinner. These “little toasts” make perfect one-bite hors d’oeuvres, but topped with cheese and melted under the broiler they’re also great to float on a bowl of soup, crouton-style, or serve with a salad. Because they are smaller and more refined, they are perfect for richer, more sophisticated toppings than you might serve on heartier bruschetta.

For bruschetta, I prefer to use ciabatta bread or a pane rustica because the loaves are wide but flat and not too dense. Slicing the bread crosswise into ½- or ¾-inch-thick slices makes long narrow toasts that won’t droop or sag under their topping when picked up. I generally use a baguette for my crostini and cut them fairly straight across to make small, nicely rounded toasts of uniform size that look beautiful arranged on a tray or platter.

This is rustic and simple, and deeply satisfying. Pureed beans can get a bit crusty when exposed to air, so if you make these ahead of time, drizzle a bit of a nice fruity olive oil over each crostini to keep it fresh and make it glisten. If you want a lighter version, you can certainly serve this on cucumber rounds, but I love the way the smoky flavor of the eggplant and the grilled bread work together.

1 (1½-pound) eggplant or 3 Japanese eggplants, trimmed and cut into 2-inch pieces

⅓ cup olive oil, plus more for drizzling

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

1 French baguette, cut into ½-inch-thick slices

1 (15-ounce) can cannellini beans, drained and rinsed

⅓ cup loosely packed fresh flat-leaf parsley leaves

3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice (from 1 lemon)

1 garlic clove

Place an oven rack in the middle of the oven and preheat the oven to 450°F.

Put the eggplant on a parchment paper–lined rimmed baking sheet. Drizzle with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Roast for 20 to 25 minutes, until golden brown. Set aside to cool.

While the eggplant is roasting, preheat a grill pan over medium-high heat. Drizzle the bread slices with olive oil on both sides and arrange in the pan. Cook until both sides are pale golden and crisp, about 5 minutes total. Set aside to cool.

In the bowl of a food processor, combine the cooled eggplant (flesh and skin), beans, parsley, lemon juice, garlic, ½ teaspoon salt, and ¼ teaspoon pepper. Pulse until the mixture is coarsely chopped. With the machine running, gradually add the ⅓ cup olive oil and process until the mixture is creamy. Season with salt and pepper, if needed.

Spoon the spread into a small bowl and serve with the bread slices. Alternatively, spoon the spread over the bread and arrange on a serving platter.

Rome is famous for its artichokes, and in the Jewish district you can buy amazing fried whole artichokes on street corners. Back home, I use frozen artichokes for ease and I love combining them with beans in a creamy dip for bruschetta, a favorite snack throughout Italy. The crispy, salty prosciutto highlights the subtle flavor of the artichokes and adds crunch.

Vegetable oil cooking spray

4 very thin slices prosciutto

12 (¼-inch-thick) slices rustic country bread

½ cup olive oil, plus more for drizzling

1 (12-ounce) package frozen artichoke hearts, thawed

1 (15-ounce) can cannellini beans, rinsed and drained

1 cup freshly grated Pecorino Romano cheese

½ cup coarsely chopped fresh basil leaves

1 teaspoon grated lemon zest

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice

2 teaspoons salt

½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

Place an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 375°F. Spray a rimmed baking sheet with vegetable oil cooking spray.

Lay the prosciutto in a single layer on the prepared baking sheet and bake for 10 to 12 minutes, until crispy. Set aside to cool for 10 minutes.

On another baking sheet, arrange the bread slices in a single layer. Using a pastry brush, brush the bread with ¼ cup of the oil. Bake for 12 to 15 minutes, until golden.

In a food processor, combine the artichoke hearts, beans, cheese, basil, lemon zest, lemon juice, salt, and pepper. Pulse until the mixture is chunky. With the machine running, slowly add the remaining ¼ cup olive oil and mix until combined but still slightly chunky.

Spoon the artichoke mixture onto the crostini. Crumble the prosciutto and sprinkle on top. Drizzle with oil and serve.

Pea Pesto Crostini

I don’t keep a lot in my freezer, but one thing you’ll always find there is a package of frozen peas. They’re sweet, they have a lovely green color, and when puréed they can satisfy a craving for a starchy food. If you’re not a big fan of peas, at least give this a try. I think it’s going to be your new favorite thing. I can’t resist eating it straight out of the bowl!

1 (10-ounce) package frozen peas, thawed

1 garlic clove

½ cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese

1 teaspoon salt, plus more to taste

¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper, plus more to taste

⅔ cup olive oil

8 (½-inch-thick) slices whole-grain baguette or ciabatta bread, preferably day-old (see Cook’s Note)

8 cherry tomatoes, halved, or 1 small tomato, diced

For the pea pesto: Pulse together in a food processor the peas, garlic, Parmesan cheese, salt, and pepper. With the machine running, slowly add ⅓ cup of the olive oil and continue to mix until well combined, 1 to 2 minutes. Season with more salt and pepper, if needed. Transfer to a small bowl and set aside.

For the crostini: Preheat a stovetop griddle or grill pan over medium-high.

Brush both sides of each of the bread slices with the remaining ⅓ cup olive oil and grill until golden, 1 to 2 minutes. Transfer the bread to a platter and spread 1 to 2 tablespoons pesto on each slice. Top each crostini with 2 tomato halves and serve.

COOK’S NOTE: Day-old bread works best here because it stands up to the pea purée and isn’t too soft in the center. If you don’t have any on hand, you can dry out fresh bread by putting the slices in a 300°F oven until slightly crisp, about 5 minutes.

Tomato Basil Tartlets

When it comes to cocktail food, I like one-biters and I like things that are dainty and beautiful. These pretty little tarts fit that bill and more. They taste as fantastic as they look. I prefer to use black-olive tapenade because of its richness, but you can certainly try green-olive, which is tangier.

1 (10 × 9-inch) sheet frozen puff pastry, thawed

All-purpose flour, for sprinkling

⅓ cup store-bought black-olive tapenade

1 cup (2 ounces) grated Fontina cheese

8 cherry tomatoes, quartered

6 fresh basil leaves, chopped

Fleur de sel or other coarse sea salt (optional)

special equipment

A 2¼-inch-round cookie cutter

Place an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 400°F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.

Unroll the puff pastry on a lightly floured work surface. Using the tines of a fork, prick the pastry all over. Using a 2¼-inch-round cookie cutter, cut out 16 rounds of pastry. Place the pastry rounds ¾ inch apart on the prepared baking sheet. Lay a piece of parchment paper on top of the pastry rounds and then place another baking sheet directly on top of the parchment paper to keep the pastry even while baking. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes, until golden. Remove the top baking sheet and the top piece of parchment paper.

Spread 1 teaspoon tapenade on each pastry round. Spoon about 1 tablespoon cheese on top. Arrange 2 tomato quarters over each dollop of cheese. Bake for 5 to 7 minutes, until the cheese has melted.

Transfer the tartlets to a platter and sprinkle them with chopped basil and some fleur de sel, if desired.

Stuffed Baby Peppers

My mother always loved to serve stuffed vegetables; she stuffed zucchini, potatoes, onions, and, of course, all kinds of peppers. It may have been her way of getting us to eat our vegetables, but we loved them so much we ate them right out of the fridge the next day. I’ve used pancetta in the filling, but this is an easy recipe to vary and you could certainly substitute ground beef, sausage—almost anything savory that you like. These taste better the longer they sit, so they make great leftovers.

Vegetable oil cooking spray

2 tablespoons olive oil

3 ounces thinly sliced pancetta, finely chopped

½ medium onion, finely chopped

¾ cup whole-milk ricotta cheese

⅓ cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese

½ cup frozen petite peas, thawed

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

24 (2- to 3-inch long) sweet baby peppers

Place an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 350°F. Spray a rimmed baking sheet with vegetable oil cooking spray. Set aside.

In a medium skillet, heat the olive oil over medium-high heat. Add the pancetta and cook, stirring frequently, until brown and crispy, 5 to 7 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, remove the pancetta and drain on paper towels. Add the onion to the pan and cook until translucent and soft, about 5 minutes. Set aside to cool for 10 minutes.

In a medium bowl, combine the onion, pancetta, cheeses, and peas. Season with salt and pepper.

Using a paring knife, cut ½ inch from the stem end of each pepper. Remove the seeds and veins. Using a small dessert spoon, fill each pepper with the cheese mixture. Place the filled peppers on the prepared baking sheet and bake for 15 to 18 minutes, until the peppers begin to soften and the cheese is warmed through. Cool for 10 minutes.

Arrange the peppers on a platter and serve.

COOK’S NOTE: To serve as an entrée portion, double the filling, stuff it into 4 full-size bell peppers, and bake at 350°F for 1 hour, covering with foil if they brown too much, until the peppers are just starting to collapse.

Smoked Salmon and Apple Carpaccio

When I go to a restaurant and want something light, I immediately look to the carpaccios and crudos, which often feature marinated raw fish. Smoked salmon can deliver the same light, clean flavors but without the worry of serving raw beef or fish at home. I like to arrange the salmon and apples on a platter and let guests pile them onto slices of bread themselves; the color of the salmon is simply stunning next to the green apples, which also contribute crunch and freshness.

6 (¼-inch-thick) slices rosemary or olive bread, quartered

Juice of 1 lemon

1 small green apple, such as Granny Smith, halved, cored, and very thinly sliced

6 ounces Nova Scotia smoked salmon

1 tablespoon capers, rinsed and drained

Olive oil, for drizzling

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

Place an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 400°F.

Arrange the bread on a baking sheet in a single layer. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes, until lightly brown and crisp. Cool to room temperature, about 10 minutes.

To prevent the apples from browning, in a small bowl, combine 2 cups water with the lemon juice. Add the apple slices and soak until ready to use. Drain and blot
pastry, best keto diet, vegetarian lunch recipes, eating vegan, potato curry, ergy, reduce cravings, or alleviate symptoms of depression, a low-carb diet may very well be the answer you’ve been looking for.

Low-Carb Diet for Beginners is filled with information that will help you tackle these issues and more. You will find all of the basic information you need to better understand low-carb eating and to learn how to make changes in your eating habits. This book provides:

• An introduction to low-carb diets, how and why they work, and the truth about many common low-carb diet myths

• A basic low-carb eating plan

• Numerous easy, quick, and delicious recipes that fit the plan

The book is divided into two parts. Part One provides an overview of low-carb diets, a detailed explanation of the science behind low-carb eating and how it affects your weight and general health, and an examination of the health benefits of low-carb eating. It also provides a guide to getting started with low-carb eating, and offers tips for reading nutrition labels, grocery shopping, stocking your pantry, and low-carb cooking. It answers many commonly asked questions about low-carb diets, debunks common myths about low-carb diets, and explains the difference between “good carbs” and “bad carbs.” Finally, a seven-day meal plan shows you what low-carb eating looks like on a day-today basis.

Part Two offers low-carb recipes that will help you to make quick and simple meals that are very low in carbs but full of delicious flavor. With these recipes in hand, you’ll begin your low-carb diet by eating meals that truly satisfy you. Since you’ll be eating foods you love and are enjoying your meals, you’ll be more likely to stick to the diet for the long term. Before you know it, you’ll be well on your way to better health.

PART ONE

The Low-Carb Diet

CHAPTER ONE WHAT IS A LOW-CARB DIET?

CHAPTER TWO GETTING STARTED WITH THE LOW-CARB DIET

CHAPTER THREE THE MEAL PLAN

CHAPTER 1

What Is a Low-Carb Diet?

A low-carbohydrate diet is any diet plan in which carbohydrates are limited. Carbohydrates, often called carbs, are nutrient compounds found in a wide variety of foods—both healthful and unhealthful—including bread, legumes, dairy products, potatoes, broccoli, apples, pasta, soda, corn, and chocolate. The most common forms of carbohydrates are sugar, fiber, and starch.

The quantity of carbohydrates a person can eat on a low-carb diet varies widely from person to person. The goal is to find a level that works for you, the level where you lose weight and feel great. For most people, carbs will be about 20 percent (or less) of their daily caloric intake. For the average 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, that means about 100 grams of carbohydrates are allowed per day. In most low-carbohydrate diets, refined grains (white flour, white rice, etc.) and added sugars are considered mostly, if not entirely, off limits. There are many different low-carb diet plans, including Atkins, the Zone Diet, Protein Power, Sugar Busters, South Beach, the Paleo or Caveman Diet, and many others. While these diets all differ from one another, the one thing they have in common is that they severely restrict dietary carbohydrates and rely on protein and fats for the majority of daily calories.

Low-carbohydrate diets are extremely popular among those trying to lose weight. Many people who embark on low-carb diets report that their energy levels soar as their cravings for carb-heavy foods plummet. These diets are fairly easy to follow since they do not require detailed tracking of foods or calories eaten. And many people lose a significant amount of weight on these diets, adding greatly to their appeal.

HOW AND WHY LOW-CARB DIETS WORK

At the most basic level, all weight-loss diets work by reducing your overall caloric intake to below the level that your body uses throughout the day, creating what’s known as a calorie deficit (consuming fewer calories than you burn). Many diets help you to lose weight simply by restricting the number of calories you consume each day so that you create a calorie deficit. This is how low-calorie diets work. It is also how low-fat diets work. Because fat has more calories per gram than either carbohydrates or protein, by reducing the amount of fat you eat, you reduce your calorie intake.

It may come as a surprise to you that the low-carb diets cause weight loss in the same way, by creating a calorie deficit. The difference is that low-carb diets work not by telling you how many calories you can put in your mouth, but by affecting your body’s internal engine—the hormones and neurotransmitters that determine your hunger, satiety, energy levels, and cravings—and thereby causing you to want fewer calories. Numerous scientific studies, in fact, have shown that people lose about the same amount of weight on a low-carb diet as on a low-calorie diet, even though they do not limit portions or count calories. People on low-carb diets, it seems, have fewer cravings and feel satisfied with fewer calories. As a result, they naturally consume fewer calories, and therefore they lose weight.

To understand how and why the low-carb diet works, we first have to look at what happens to carbohydrates after you consume them. The human body’s primary fuel source is carbohydrates. After eating carbohydrates, through the process of digestion your body breaks them down into simple sugars, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream, where they are known as blood sugar (glucose). With the help of insulin, glucose is carried to your body’s cells, where it is used for energy, the fuel for everything you do, from breathing or walking to running a marathon. Excess glucose is converted to fat. When carbohydrates are limited, the body is forced to burn the stores of glucose in the fat cells for energy. On a most basic level, then, low-carbohydrate diets work by limiting the body’s fuel and forcing it to burn its fat stores for energy.

But there is more to it than that. Insulin’s job is to take glucose, or sugar, from your blood and deliver it to the fat cells. The problem is that when insulin sends those glucose calories to your fat cells, you no longer have access to those calories for energy. Your blood sugar plummets and you feel lousy—lethargic and hungry. So your body responds by eating more to make up for the loss of energy, which sends more glucose to your fat cells, which causes you to eat even more.

Put all this together and you see that when your body produces excess insulin, the calories you consume turn directly into fat, and yet your body feels as if it is starving. As a result, you eat more, which only creates more fat.

Where does the excess insulin come from to begin with? Research shows that it comes from eating a diet high in carbs, especially refined grains and added sugar. This high-carb diet increases your body’s production of insulin, which creates a biochemical drive to eat more and burn less energy.

Meanwhile, two other bodily hormones, leptin and ghrelin, are designed to help regulate your appetite, telling the brain when you are hungry or satiated. Unfortunately, when you are overweight, both those hormones don’t function properly.

Let’s look at leptin first. Leptin is secreted primarily in fat cells, and it signals the brain when you have consumed enough fuel, conveying that you are satisfied and that you have the energy you need to go about your business. Because leptin is secreted by fat cells, the more fat you have, the more leptin you produce. And since leptin decreases appetite, increased leptin should help you to lose weight. But this is not the case in people who are overweight. So what’s going on?

It is true that the more fat you have, the more leptin your body produces. In theory, the more the leptin you produce, the less hungry you should be and the less food you should eat. And the less fat your body has, the less leptin you should produce, which should make you hungrier and cause you to eat more.

People who are obese do, in fact, have very high levels of leptin. You’d think that would mean that those people would automatically eat only the number of calories that they need, and yet they continue to gain weight. Why is that? It turns out that insulin blocks leptin at the brain, preventing it from delivering its message of satiety. This is called leptin resistance—when leptin is unable to do its job because of high levels of insulin. So the person eats more, which produces more insulin, which creates more fat. You see where this is going, right?

In contrast to leptin, ghrelin, which is produced primarily in the stomach, tells your brain when you are hungry. Ghrelin levels go up when you haven’t eaten for a while or when you are limiting your calories. Most of the time, ghrelin and leptin work together in a fine balance. As one increases, the other decreases to keep your appetite under control. If your body is in balance, when you haven’t eaten in a while, your ghrelin level rises and tells your brain that you are hungry. You eat a meal and your leptin level rises, telling your brain that you are full and that your stomach can stop producing ghrelin. But if you have developed leptin resistance, this harmony is disrupted. Your brain doesn’t get the signal that you are full and so you feel an overwhelming urge to keep eating. Some of the common recommendations for maintaining a balance between leptin and ghrelin include: eating sufficient calories to keep your body from going into starvation mode, eating plenty of protein, not skipping meals, avoiding fructose, and increasing consumption of healthy fats. It’s no coincidence that all of these recommendations are consistent with a low-carb diet.

The bottom line is that overeating carbohydrates can lead to increased insulin levels, which prevents calories from being used for energy and causes more glucose to be stored as fat, which leads to leptin resistance, excessive ghrelin levels, and overeating.

The low-carb diet, then, works by lowering insulin levels, which causes the body to burn both glucose and stored fat for energy while allowing leptin to deliver its message of satiety to the brain, restoring the balance between leptin and ghrelin. Ultimately this helps you shed excess weight and reduce risk factors for a variety of health conditions.

WHY CHOOSE A LOW-CARB DIET FOR WEIGHT LOSS?

The quickest answer to that question is: Because it works. And this isn’t just some newfangled fad, either. Remember how your mom—or grandma, as the case may be—always used to ignore the bread basket and skip dessert when she wanted to slim down a bit? In fact, since as early as the mid-1800s, doctors and scientists have been uncovering ample evidence of the effectiveness of weight-loss diets that limit refined and simple carbohydrates.

The idea of restricting consumption of carbohydrates to lose weight was first popularized by a formerly obese English undertaker named William Banting. Banting’s self-published booklet, Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, detailed the low-carb diet—four meals a day consisting of meat, greens, fruits, and dry wine—that had helped him slim down after many other diets had failed him. He emphasized avoiding sugar, starch, beer, milk, and butter.

Sure, you can lose weight on any diet as long as you create a calorie deficit, but there are a couple of problems with the straight calorie-restriction approach. The first and most obvious problem is hunger. When people simply cut calories, they feel hungry. And no one likes to feel hungry, even if it’s just for a few days (or hours!) and especially if it’s a long-term situation. No matter how much a person wants to lose weight, they will eventually give in to hunger, which leads to the yo-yo effect, where you lose weight only to gain it back again, and then try to lose it again, in a continuing cycle.

Thanks to biochemical reactions, low-carbohydrate diets have a distinct advantage over those that simply restrict calories. As we have learned, by restricting carbs, you lower your body’s production of insulin, which allows more of the glucose in your blood to be burned for energy instead of being stored as fat, and allows leptin to do its job of signaling the brain when you have eaten a sufficient amount. In other words, you feel satisfied with less food. Eating simple carbohydrates, on the other hand, increases your appetite. So even though low-carb dieters aren’t actively counting calories, they end up eating fewer of them simply because they feel less hungry.

Recent studies have shown that people who restrict their carbohydrate intake not only eat fewer calories, but actually burn more calories even while at rest than people who eat high-carbohydrate diets. So a low-carb diet may increase your metabolism while at the same time reducing your hunger, making it easier for you to eat less and burn more.

HOW TO LOSE WEIGHT ON A LOW-CARB DIET

To be successful on a low-carb diet, it is important to first understand a bit about carbohydrates, which foods contain them, and the difference between simple carbohydrates (“bad carbs”) and complex carbohydrates (“good carbs”). Although carbohydrates have gotten a bad rap in recent years, some are, in fact, crucial for good health.

Good Carbs Versus Bad Carbs

There are two types of carbohydrates: Simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are the so-called bad ones.

The primary difference between the good carbs and bad carbs is fiber. The digestive system breaks all carbohydrates down into sugar (glucose), which is the body’s source of energy. Carbohydrates that contain very little fiber break down much more quickly than those that contain a lot of fiber. The quicker glucose hits your bloodstream, the more severe the resulting spike in blood sugar will be.

Good carbs, or complex carbohydrates, are those that are full of fiber and nutrients. Because of their higher fiber content, complex carbohydrates are absorbed slowly into our systems, thereby not causing the extreme spikes in blood sugar levels that lead to overproduction of insulin and leptin resistance. Good carbs serve as easily accessible energy for the body, contain lots of important nutrients, and are the body’s only source of fiber.

Complex carbohydrates are plant foods that are minimally refined—such as vegetables, fruits, beans, and whole grains—and are full of nutrients as well as fiber, which, while it is not digested, provides all sorts of health benefits. Fiber slows down the absorption of other nutrients eaten at the same meal, including carbohydrates, preventing blood sugar spikes, hence preventing spikes in insulin production and leptin resistance. Fiber also has the added benefit of helping you feel full with fewer calories and for a longer period of time. Whole grains, beans, vegetables, and fruits are all examples of good carbs.

Good carbs are found in:

• Nonstarchy vegetables (leafy greens, broccoli, cauliflower, zucchini, cucumbers)

• Beans and other legumes (black beans, pinto beans, peanuts)

• Whole grains (brown rice, oats, millet, bulgur)

• Nonstarchy fruits (berries, melons, apples, grapes, peaches, nectarines)

Simple carbohydrates are plant foods that have been highly refined and stripped of their beneficial fiber and nutrients, or those that are naturally devoid of fiber and nutrients. These include refined sugar (including corn syrup and other caloric sweeteners) and grains like white flour and white rice. White potatoes, certain other starchy vegetables, and some fruits fall into this category as well, since they are high in natural sugars and starch but low in other nutrients and fiber. Many of these foods provide next to nothing in the way of nutrients. They are empty calories that cause blood sugar to spike, setting off the vicious insulin-fat-storage–leptin-resistance cycle that leads to weight gain.

Bad carbs are found in:

• White flour

• White bread

• White rice

• White potatoes

• Added sugar

While simple carbs may provide quick energy for the body, that energy is wasted if you are not using it to run a race or participate in some other demanding physical activity.

The most effective low-carb diets are those that eliminate simple carbs altogether, while limiting carbohydrates from complex carbs to a level that provides the needed dietary fiber and nutrients but does not create extreme spikes in blood sugar.

Low-Carb Diet for Beginners focuses on severely restricting or eliminating bad carbs from the diet and choosing good carbs in moderate quantities in order to reap the benefits of the nutrients, fiber, and energy they provide.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF LOW-CARB EATING

Low-carb diets have many health benefits. The first and most obvious one is weight loss. Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of a host of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Reducing your weight by as little as 7 to 10 percent can reverse or prevent diabetes, lower your blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and help you sleep better.

A few other health benefits of low-carb diets include lower blood sugar levels, which can significantly lower your risk of developing cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Stabilizing your blood sugar level also makes you feel better and more ene
tiramisu meaning, how many carbs a day on keto, szechuan shrimp, joy of baking, sourdough bread, spent many hours alone

writing this book.

viii | acknowledgments

catering A GUIDE TO

MANAGING A

SUCCESSFUL

BUSINESS

OPERATION

1.introduction to

catering

Whenever people gather together for sev-

eral hours, they’re going to require food and beverages. At business meet-

ings, coffee, tea, and bottled water—at the very least—are made available

for attendees. Celebratory occasions such as weddings, christenings, birth-

day parties, bar and bat mitzvahs, and anniversaries call for special food and

drink to complete the festivities. These are all prime occasions for catering.

From a meal in a prestigious stadium skybox to a mobile lunch wagon

on a movie set, catering can be bone-china elegant or paper-plate casual,

but it always means serving good-quality food and drink to many people.

Several things distinguish a catering operation from a restaurant.

| 1

Catering is usually done by prearranged contract—food and drink provided

at a certain cost to a specific number of people. The menu at a catered event

is usually more limited than a restaurant menu and is chosen in advance

by the client. The way the food is prepared is different, too. Although both

restaurant and catering chefs do the mise en place, or prepare the food

ahead of time to a certain extent, catering chefs prepare their food so that

it only needs brief final cooking, reheating, or assembly prior to service.

There are two main categories of catering.

Institutional: These caterers at hospitals, universities, airlines, large

hotels, and retirement centers provide a wide variety of food and

drink to a large number of people on an ongoing basis—usually at the

institution itself. The institution usually contracts with a catering

company to have this service provided.

Social: These caterers provide food and beverage services to civic

groups, charities, corporations, businesses, and individuals on-

premise at a catering or banquet hall or off-premise at a selected

location.

The opportunities for a catering business multiply every year, given the

right demographics—individuals, groups, or businesses who are able to

pay for the service.

Who Uses Catering Services?

• Convention centers

• Hospitals, universities, retirement centers, nursing homes

• The entertainment industry: musicians on tour, movie sets, plays

in production, professional sports events

• Businesses: For meetings, openings, special sales events, corpo-

2 | catering

rate retreats, team-building exercises, awards banquets, executive

dining, employee meals, galas, and so on

• Community groups: For fund-raisers, donor or sponsor lunches,

galas, and so on

• Individuals: For special in-home dinners, bridal and baby showers,

wedding receptions, birthdays, anniversaries, funerals, and so on

Career Outlook for Catering

The catering segment of the hospitality industry continues to grow every

year. During the mid-1990s, catering was actually the fastest-growing

sector of the food service industry. According to the Bureau of Labor and

Statistics (a division of the U.S. Department of Labor), food preparation

careers will be in demand through 2012. Institutional catering—to

universities, hospitals, nursing homes, and business campuses—is on

the upswing. Social catering to civic groups, charities, corporations,

businesses, and individuals is the fastest-growing segment, according to

the Restaurant Industry Forecast 2000, prepared by the National

Restaurant Association.

Why? Contract catering allows institutions to keep costs down. And in

the case of social catering, a home-building trend that includes large

kitchens with upscale appliances inspires owners to entertain more often.

The increase of cooking and lifestyle programming on television has led

the average person to learn more about food products, wine, and cooking,

and thus want a more sophisticated approach to home, business, or com-

munity entertaining than ever before.

chapter one: introduction to catering | 3

Profile of a Successful Caterer

According to the Princeton Review, over 70 percent of all catering services

are owner run. Thus, a successful caterer usually marries the culinary tal-

ents of a chef with the business savvy of a CEO.

For anyone who wants to be a caterer, a passion for entertaining is a

prerequisite, because without it, the long hours and hard work will seem

tiring rather than exciting and rewarding. Many caterers start out as peo-

ple who simply love to cook and entertain. Their guests are always compli-

menting them on their abilities and telling them that they should entertain

for a living. There are some very successful caterers who have begun their

career this way; however, the passion for cooking and entertaining alone is

not a recipe for success.

Before starting a catering business, you should attend formal classes

on catering and business management or work for one or more caterers

until you have a high level of understanding and a sense of the business.

Some people try to turn their hobby into a small catering business from

home, in kitchens that are not licensed by the local health department.

There is a big risk in operating this way. Home-based caterers may find

themselves in trouble with the health department if their guests become ill

from their food. In addition, home-based caterers usually do not under-

stand the realities of running a for-profit catering business with many fixed

expenses, such as business licenses, separate business phone and fax

lines, and a Web site, all of which are necessary for continued business

growth.

If you think that catering might be a great career option for you, check

your skills against the qualities that a successful caterer ought to have

4 | catering

(see sidebar). See how you fit in, or find those areas in which you’ll need

more education or help.

Some of these qualifications could be a natural part of your personality

or education; you might have to learn others. Or you could hire a person or

Qualities of a Successful Caterer

Excellent organizational skills

Time-management skills

The ability to multitask

A friendly, hospitable personality

The ability to manage stress

An extensive knowledge of ingredients

A high level of written and verbal communication skills

Natural leadership and motivational skills

A knowledge of social and religious cultures and customs

Excellent networking skills

Proficiency in basic accounting principles

Basic mechanical skills

Good negotiating skills

Quick thinking and problem-solving skills

chapter one: introduction to catering | 5

company to handle a part of the business that is not your strong suit. Here are several examples:

• If your culinary creativity soars, but your spelling and grammar are

not the best, contract with a high school English teacher or a profes-

sional food writer to proofread your letters, contracts, and menus on

a case-by-case basis. You may have the best-looking and best-tasting

food in your city, but if your contracts, letters, and menus have

spelling mistakes, that tells your customers that you aren’t top-notch.

• If you’re a talented chef with a sense of style but you don’t have a clue

about accounting practices, take a noncredit adult education class at

your local community college, hire an accountant, or shadow a

restaurant or catering manager to see how the book work is done.

• If your food and business skills are terrific but your style sense suf-

fers, either concentrate on an area of catering in which this doesn’t

matter as much—institutional or outdoor barbecue catering—or

hire an assistant or catering manager with a sense of style.

• If your food sense, style, and business skills are all great, but you

can’t fix anything, offer a retainer to a full-time (more expensive) or

retired (less expensive) handyman or refrigerator and appliance

repairperson to be on call. Then pay the hourly rate for any service

call. For a major function, include the cost of this person’s services

as an insurance policy against culinary disaster. If you can’t get the

blowtorch to work and you need to make crème brûlée for three

hundred, his or her services will be worth the extra money—espe-

cially if you have already figured the cost into your per person price.

The bottom line: a successful caterer has all the bases covered.

6 | catering

What Do You Want to Do?

Finding Your Catering Identity

Catering is a popular but competitive field. If you develop an identity or a

signature style, you can create the competitive edge you’ll need to suc-

ceed. Most people associate caterers with mainstream events such as

weddings and holiday parties. Caterers who seek out a specific group or

niche market have the opportunity to become the preferred caterers when

that specific style of catering is needed. And caterers who know how to

customize their services to appeal to a specific group or type of event usu-

ally continue to grow their businesses.

For example, you might decide to specialize in outdoor barbecue cater-

ing and market your business accordingly. You would set up your business

with the specific equipment needed for this type of catering and create a

customized barbecue menu. If you perform well at the initial events that

you contract, you’ll have good word-of-mouth referrals. You’ll earn back

your initial investment for the specialized barbecue equipment quickly,

making it difficult for other mainstream caterers who need to rent equip-

ment to compete for this type of party.

Here are a few more examples of catering niches:

• Party platters: Whether dropped off by the caterer or picked up by

the customer, party platters are a great way to create a buzz. Sales

reps find they can get more attention from a medical or editorial staff

when they provide a free lunch. Automobile dealers often want finger

foods for potential customers coming to their showroom during a spe-

cial promotion. Real estate agents may provide food and beverages

to potential buyers during an open house showcasing a property.

chapter one: introduction to catering | 7

• Five-star dining at home: Although popular, this service is still a niche market in large cities. Instead of going to a high-style restaurant, clients want a five-star experience in the comfort (and, usual-

ly, elegance) of their own homes, often for a special dinner for either

business or pleasure.

• Special dietary catering: Your identity might be kosher or weight-

loss foods, if the demographics in your area can support it.

Vegetarian or even vegan catering is popular with entertainment

industry professionals. If your catering operation can travel to

movie sets or rock concerts, or deliver meals to customers, so much

the better.

How Do You Want to Do It?

Finding the Right Catering Scenario

The big question is: Do you want to be employed as a caterer by a larger

organization or start your own catering business?

As an employee of a larger catering organization, you can expect a median

yearly salary of $35,000 to $50,000, according to www.payscale.com, a

Web site that publishes accurate, real-time salary reports based on job

title, location, education, skills, and experience. The benefits of employ-

ment are that you do not take the financial risk of starting a business, you

have fewer job responsibilities than a catering business owner, and you

gain valuable experience. The downside is that your earning potential is

more limited.

As a caterer owning your own business, there is no guaranteed salary.

You risk the money you use to start your business, your job responsibilities

cover all aspects of the business, and any mistakes you make affect you

directly. The upside is that your earning potential is virtually unlimited.

8 | catering

A medium-size catering business grossing $500,000 per year (about

$10,000 in receipts every week) can realize a profit ranging from 10 to 20

percent, or $50,000 to $100,000. Top caterers can gross $1 million or

more with a similar profit margin—about $100,000 to $200,000 per year.

Keeping expenses in line and factoring profit into your pricing are the keys

to that profit. (See Chapter 3, “Pricing for Profit.”)

Whether you want to start your own business or to be employed as a

caterer or catering manager, there are many types of catering to consider.

On-Premise Catering

An on-premise catering operation is made up of a food production area

(kitchen) and a connected area where people dine. Examples of on-prem-

ise catering operations include restaurants, hotel banquet departments,

cruise ships, country clubs, catering halls, and even some religious

structures. On-premise operations should be located in desirable, safe

locations and have ample parking. Whenever possible, the operation

should be easily accessible by car and visible from the road. There should

be a drop-off area for guests to allow for valet parking and protect the

guests in bad weather. The entrance should have wheelchair accessibility

and even an automatic door.

The downside to this scenario is that the larger the facility and the closer

it is to a downtown area, the more expensive it will be to launch. However,

on-premise catering businesses are a great place to gain valuable experi-

ence or a steady income as a salaried employee.

Many on-premise caterers start off renovating former movie theater

space in a shopping mall, renting space in an existing school or church,

adding on a private banquet room to their existing restaurant, or building a

chapter one: introduction to catering | 9

catering hall in areas close to a metropolitan area, but far enough away to find good real estate values.

The following are some examples of the many levels and styles of on-

premise catering.

RESTAURANTS

Many restaurants have a private area or areas that can be used for parties.

Some restaurants cater parties at their establishments on days that they

are normally closed. Some operators even book their restaurant for

catered events during normal business hours and close the doors to the

public. (Restaurant operators should not turn away their regular clientele

too often by closing their entire operation for such private parties.) If you

already own or run a restaurant, this is a good way to get started in cater-

ing, as all the basics—your overhead expenses, kitchen facility, linens,

glasses, and wait staff—are already in place.

HOTELS AND RESORTS

Hotels and resorts depend on their banquet departments to achieve prof-

itability for their overall food and beverage operations. Banquet net profits

can range from 15 to 40 percent, while hotel room service and restaurants

often lose money. Many hotels have a variety of banquet rooms of differ-

ent sizes and styles. This allows them to market their catering services to

corporate clients for meetings and conventions as well as to private clients

for social engagements, such as weddings and bar mitzvahs. Most hotels

charge for the rental of the banquet rooms as well as for food, beverages,

and service. This rental fee is partly responsible for the banquet’s prof-

itability.

10 | catering

Most hotels and resorts have large banquet kitchens specifically

designed for high-volume catering. There is usually a separate group of

cooks and prep people, headed by a banquet chef. The executive chef over-

sees this department and collaborates with the banquet chef and

event- planning personnel when developing banquet menus or planning

individual events. While working in such a venue is a good way to get

catering experience, establishing one is a difficult and expensive way to

start your own business.

CRUISE LINES

Most cruise lines offer catering services aboard their ocean liners. Event

planning aboard a cruise liner is similar to that in a hotel. Some additional

challenges are providing lodging for all the affair’s guests and the inability

to receive additional products once at sea. Cruise lines do have wonderful

banquet rooms and other spaces that, along with the natural attributes of

the environment, make a great venue for parties. Again, this is a good way

to get catering experience, but a difficult and expensive way to start your

own business—unless you already own a cruise line!

COUNTRY CLUBS

Most country clubs have banquet facilities. While many clubs only allow

their members to hold events there, others allow member-sponsored

events or even offer their banquet services to the general public. Country

clubs often have golf courses and other sports facilities that lure busi-

nesses and organizations to host company-wide meetings or conven-

tions where the participants enjoy a day of activities as well as a meal.

Working at a country club can be a great way to gain catering experience

chapter one: introduction to catering | 11

and develop your identity before you start your own business—or it can

simply be a great job.

PRIVATE CLUBS

Private clubs located in urban areas also provide catering opportunities for

their members or the public. These “city” clubs have meeting rooms and

dining areas that make them viable catering venues, which can provide

valuable (and usually upscale) catering experiences. But unless you want

to start your own private club, they are not an option for a practicable start-

up business.

BANQUET HALLS

The most obvious of all on-premise catering operations is the banquet hall.

These businesses specialize in catering social events. Most banquet halls

have the capability of producing multiple events simultaneously. This is

important, as the banquet hall usually has no other income-producing

functions. It is possible, however, for banquet hall operators to do off-

premise catering for the sa

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