La machine à pain by Rébecca Pugnale [list of books]


  • Full Title : La machine à pain : 300 Recettes 300 photographies
  • Autor: Rébecca Pugnale
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  • ISBN-10: 2843502462
  • ISBN-13: 978-2843502460
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Voici un ouvrage regroupant 300 recettes illustrées de pains salés et sucrés, de viennoiseries, gâteauxet confitures maison : de quoi parfumer votre cuisine de délicieuses odeurs et déguster toutes sortes de pains moelleux et savoureux à souhait ! Réalisé à partir des quatre premiers ouvrages à succès parus chez le même éditeur, ce recueil est l’outil indispensable de tous les adeptes de la machine à pain. Les recettes sont appropriées à toutes les machines quelle que soit leur marque, et certaines sont à réaliser en combinant machine à pain et four, afin de faire varier les formes et les plaisirs. Vous y trouverez tous les conseils essentiels pour réussir facilement l’ensemble de vos préparations. A chaque jour ses saveurs…

 

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ple can thrive on low-fat diets, high-fat diets, low-carb diets, and low-protein diets. As Michael Pollan explores in his book In Defense of Food, the most consistent predictor of weight gain and poor health is how much processed food people eat.3 Whether it’s low-fat or low-carb, industrially processed foods are more likely to hinder rather than help with weight control.

But what you eat is only one part of the equation. How and even why you eat also have a significant impact on your long-term health and body weight. Habits such as chewing thoroughly and eating slowly are more common among normal-weight than overweight individuals. Cultures that encourage eating for enjoyment (e.g., the French) and health (e.g., Okinawans) have a lower incidence of obesity than other industrial societies. In other words, the science tells us that it is more important to focus on habits and overall healthy eating patterns rather than carbs and protein. Moreover, psychology and food culture can be as crucial as the types of foods you eat in determining your long-term success.

When I first realized the implications of the science, I hesitated. You mean I should try to be healthy instead of skinny? I should give up my protein bars? I should eat breakfast? I can eat carbs?! And, strangest of all, I should stop dieting? I didn’t see how any of these things could do anything but make me gain weight. But I trusted science more than Cosmo, or even Shape magazine, and decided to give it a try. I figured if it didn’t work after a couple of weeks, I could go back to my cabbage soup and grapefruit and get back on track. So I took a deep breath, stopped counting calories, and started eating food. Real food. And for the first time in my life, I lost weight effortlessly.

The first changes I made were pretty simple. I added regular breakfast, intact and whole grains (the difference will be clear soon), and seasonal produce from the farmers market. I also included more legumes like beans and lentils. I stopped drinking diet soda and eating energy bars and other diet foods artificially high in protein and fiber. I also cut my cardio workouts down to thirty minutes (from sixty-plus minutes) and focused more on strength training and free weights. Not only did I lose weight when I incorporated these changes, but the proportions and shape of my body transformed into what I was striving for all along: one that was more slender and toned, rather than muscly with trouble spots (don’t worry, boys, because you have more testosterone, becoming a foodist can also help you build muscles).

I also lost the cravings for sweets and heavy foods that I’d struggled with my entire life. Even on the various low-carb diets I tried, I longed for bran muffins and chocolate. Since I’ve started eating real food, sugar cravings no longer haunt me, and I enjoy desserts whenever I feel like it, which is far less often. Managing my portions is much easier. Meals are satisfying, and I am hungry at the appropriate times. The stress and anxiety I used to feel about food and my weight have completely disappeared.

But that’s not even the best part of the story. Something else happened when I made that tentative commitment to focus on health instead of weight loss. After years of battling and sometimes even hating food, I discovered I loved it. I had recently moved from Berkeley to San Francisco, and some friends introduced me to the food scene. Until then I thought I knew what good food tasted like, but I was completely unprepared for the experience I had during my first truly spectacular meal. In San Francisco, ingredients shine. Yes, the chefs are innovative and brilliant, but what differentiated this food from anything I’d had in the past is the simple idea that excellent food starts with excellent ingredients. San Francisco opened my eyes to what was possible in the culinary world and, amazingly, it is based on the same principles that freed me from dieting tyranny.

Before this time I had assumed, like most people, that healthy food tasted bad, or at least worse than anything people would actually want to eat. Of course, when you’re told rice cakes and protein bars are “healthy,” then this is true. It is even true of the soggy frozen spinach and mealy pink tomatoes that passed for vegetables when I was growing up. But just like delicious San Francisco food, the healthiest food is made from high-quality, peak-of-the-season ingredients grown with care by people who are passionate about their product. I had always thought a carrot was a carrot or a chicken was a chicken, but this couldn’t be farther from the truth.

Weather and soil quality are the biggest determinants of the nutritional value of agricultural products (including the animals that feed on the plants). They are also the most important factors in how food tastes. A tomato from your garden in the summer tastes worlds better than one from the supermarket in January, and the same rules of seasonality apply to broccoli and even meat. It makes sense when you think about it. Isn’t the quality of every product ultimately determined by the quality of its starting materials? What’s amazing is that this fact transforms healthy food from something unappealing into something delicious. Fortunately for me and my grad-student budget, I could get the same ingredients used by fancy San Francisco restaurants at the local farmers market for a fraction of the price. Once I made this discovery, I could never go back to mediocre food.

It is difficult to quantify the impact of loving food instead of fighting it. Eating healthy becomes a joy, so weight loss comes naturally. Friends look at your meals with envy instead of pity. Your goals transform from burdens into fun new projects. Psychologically, one of the most important aspects of your life—the food you eat three times a day and the meals you share with friends and family—pulls a complete one-eighty and changes from stressful and difficult to joyful and delicious. The old way of dieting, and the suffering it brings, suddenly seem so unnecessary.

Foodists do not diet. Modern weight-loss diets are temporary eating plans that emphasize single nutrients and restriction over real food and lifelong habits. Foodists, in contrast, focus on real, high-quality foods in order to optimize our quality of life. We understand that how you look and feel about your body is important, but that true happiness also comes from excellent health, a fulfilling social life, rich cultural experiences, and physical enjoyment. Don’t get me wrong, my goal is to help you lose weight. But I want to make sure your success is permanent and that you don’t suffer in the process. Popular weight-loss diets sacrifice all the other aspects of life and happiness for the sake of dropping weight rapidly. But foodists know that being thinner does not solve all your problems, and if you neglect the rest of your life to get there, the weight will find its way back. As a foodist, I want more than a perfect body; I want an amazing life.

For these reasons my philosophy on food has nothing to do fat, carbs, or calories. I approach food and health with only one unshakable belief: that life should be awesome. What you eat should always enhance, and never detract from, your quality of life. You should be able to look and feel your best not just while starving yourself for a few weeks or months, but for as long as you care enough to try. Your food should taste delicious, whether it’s healthy or not, and you should never feel guilty for what you choose.

Foodist is a training manual to make real food, and therefore real, lasting weight control, a permanent part of your life. Knowing what to eat isn’t the toughest part of losing weight. There are thin, healthy people everywhere along the diet spectrum, and most of us already know that broccoli is a better choice than cheesecake. What’s difficult is navigating a world that constantly steers us away from better food and better health. The challenge is actually doing what we know is best.

Foodist will teach you how to overcome the daily obstacles and ingrained habits that prevent you from reaching your goals. Since we all face different challenges, it will also help you tailor your strategies for your own lifestyle and preferences, making sure the path you choose will work for you in the long term. You’ll learn the basics of both nutrition and psychology, so you understand not just what to eat, but also when, where, why, and how to choose foods that optimize your health and happiness. Our goal isn’t just weight loss. We want to make sure the effort you put in now gets you where you want to be, but more important is that it helps you stay there.

This book is divided into three parts. In Part I, I aim to convince you once and for all that dieting is a fool’s mission that in the long run does more harm than good. This is not bad news, though, because I then present a more effective (and vastly more enjoyable) alternative: building rewarding habits. Habits make eating healthy even easier than eating unhealthy, since they are automatic behaviors that do not require willpower. Built into this approach are joy and pleasure, since it is impossible for new habits to form without an associated reward. If healthy eating isn’t fun, it isn’t going to work.

Focusing on real food instead of those specialty, highly processed diet foods is the secret to making healthy food enjoyable. My recipe for how to make cauliflower taste as good as french fries has convinced hundreds of skeptics that vegetables aren’t just palatable, but can be insanely delicious. There will always be excuses to eat unhealthy foods (and these are never off-limits), but as a foodist you’ll have just as many delicious reasons to eat real, healthy foods. Not only do they make your taste buds happy, but unlike processed foods they’ll make you feel great and fit into your clothes after eating them. For dieters and nondieters alike, this is a game changer.

Yet as simple as it sounds, eating real food is not always straightforward. After writing multiple books and hundreds of pages explaining what it means to eat healthy, Michael Pollan still has readers clamoring for more details on how to do it. When I asked him why he thinks people continue to struggle with this, he offered two reasons. “The message ‘Eat real food’ is all but drowned out by $30-plus billion in marketing messages from the food industry. Think about the supermarket: the fresh produce is silent while the cereal aisle is full of screamers. The message gets lost,” Pollan told me. We grew up learning to pay attention to nutrients, not foods, and in the process humble whole foods were virtually eliminated from our regular eating habits.

A second issue is that eating real food requires a skill set few of us ever acquired. As a result, finding, preparing, and even identifying real food can be a challenge. “Real food is not as convenient as the other stuff, which has been engineered for ease of use, not to mention addictiveness and a long shelf life,” says Pollan. “This puts real food at a real disadvantage.”

Part II confronts these issues head-on by giving you a blueprint to get started. This includes analyzing your own diet to understand which of your habits you should target to make the biggest impact on your health and body weight. These will be different for everyone, and I’ll take you through the process of identifying and modifying your habits in a way that is best for your lifestyle. Part II teaches you how to set up your kitchen, living, and work environments as well, so that you’re never lacking in healthy, delicious options. This section also goes beyond food choices, highlighting the peripheral but equally important habits that impact your health and weight, including eating slowly and mindfully and being active instead of sedentary.

Last, Part II contains a detailed troubleshooting section and explores the most fundamental difference between a foodist and a chronic dieter: lifelong weight control. There is an art and science to being a foodist that includes having an intimate understanding of what it takes for your life to be awesome and also adjusting to life’s inevitable changes. Maintaining your weight requires ongoing self-experimentation as you shape and adjust your core habits to the evolving demands of your life. Part II teaches you these skills and also offers a recalibration plan in case you get stuck along the way.

Part III walks you through the nitty-gritty of daily living, showing you how to make the best food decisions at home, at work, in restaurants, and while traveling. It includes tips for taming a family of picky eaters and how to subtly deflect attention from your healthier choices in situations where virtuous behavior isn’t welcome. These can be as straightforward as changing the language you use to describe and think about food (e.g., kale is “tasty,” not “healthy”) or dimming the lights to help you and your dining partners eat slower. Tricks like these are invaluable, because each one removes a barrier that keeps you from your goals and sets you up for long-term success. The book closes on a philosophical note, explaining why food matters and why you’ll be happier and have greater success if you care about yours.

If you picked up this book, there’s a good chance this is not the first time you hoped a new eating plan would help you lose weight. But even if you’ve never tried to diet in the past, Foodist can help you achieve your goals. I will give you the tools you need to manage all aspects of your health for the long haul. Not only will you permanently build better habits into your daily life; you’ll also enjoy the food you eat more than you ever thought possible.

Food shouldn’t be about sacrifice. It should enrich your life by satisfying your palate, making you fit and healthy, and bringing you closer to your family, friends, and community. For most of human existence this was the case, but in the last hundred years or so we’ve shifted to viewing food as more of a vehicle to achieve our goals rather than an end in itself. We treat food as a weight-loss tool, a source of nutrients, a sinful indulgence, or an excuse to procrastinate rather than something that has value for its own sake. I wrote Foodist to turn our attention back to real food as something essential to our happiness, as something that makes life awesome.

TWO

THE MYTH OF WILLPOWER

YOU DON’T FAIL DIETS—THEY FAIL YOU

“It is a hard matter, my fellow citizens, to argue with the belly, since it has no ears.”

—CATO THE ELDER

“To promise not to do a thing is the surest way in the world to make a body want to go and do that very thing.”

—MARK TWAIN

I know how difficult it can be for a dieter to stop looking for a quick fix, even when our better judgment tells us that restriction diets will only help us keep weight off for a limited period of time. It’s still incredibly tempting to put on your superhero outfit with the big S for Self-Control on the chest. You’ve conquered your hunger in the past and lost that twenty-plus pounds. Why not just do it again for a couple of months? Once you hit your goal weight, then you can start with this whole healthy eating thing for maintenance.

I know it’s tempting. But I hope this chapter will convince you that the belief that you can will yourself thin actually does you more harm than good, that instead of getting you closer to where you want to be, it just causes you to waste time that could be used to develop the habits needed to achieve your goals and stay there. Restrictive dieting and excessive workouts won’t get you ahead faster. They actually do the opposite, holding you back both physically and mentally from better health and happiness.

THE WEAKNESS OF WILLPOWER

Does stronger willpower lead to greater and longer-lasting weight loss? Let’s tackle this question head-on, because the answer will help us find a better path. My own story suggests that there is more to weight loss than willpower, since it wasn’t until I stopped trying to eat less that my weight came down easily. But the science shows that even the “successes”* I had on restriction diets are not typical.

Self-control has always been easy for me, but this isn’t the case for most people, particularly when it comes to food. In their excellent book Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength, Roy Baumeister and John Tierney argue that humans can invoke incredible acts of will in certain circumstances,1 but concede that dieting is a special case. Baumeister calls it “the Oprah Paradox,” named for the popular TV personality and one of the most successful human beings on the planet, Oprah Winfrey. “Even people with excellent self-control can have a hard time consistently controlling their weight.”2

Despite Winfrey’s obvious personal capabilities and limitless resources, her weight struggles have been notoriously rocky. Anyone who has repeatedly tried and failed to maintain significant weight loss can sympathize with her plight. If you are accustomed to being successful in other parts of your life, this dose of reality is particularly hard to swallow. We’ve been able to excel in so many different endeavors—why can’t we just suck it up and get our weight under control? Indeed, Baumeister’s research shows that people with more willpower typically have better success at school, in business, and in their personal lives than people with less self-control, but the difference is much less pronounced in controlling body weight, at least in the long term. Although more willpower does help people stick to their diets and therefore lose more weight temporarily, over the course of their lives the strong-willed only weigh slightly less than the weak-willed.

One reason for this is that willpower is dependent on blood sugar.3 Like a muscle, willpower has limited capacity, and when exercised extensively it can become depleted. Also like a muscle, the primary fuel your brain uses to exert willpower is sugar from your blood. So when your blood sugar is low (i.e., when you’re hungry, which when you’re dieting is pretty much all the time), your willpower is weaker than ever, and the only way to fix it is to eat. You can see the difficulty this can cause when you’re making food decisions. Throwing exercise into the equation—something dieters use to intentionally burn more calories (i.e., use more blood sugar)—only makes things more problematic. Baumeister and Tierney call it a nutritional catch-22: the less you eat and the more you exercise, the less likely you will be to make good food decisions down the stretch and maintain your weight loss.

The blood-sugar issue also makes it more difficult for people who are already metabolically compromised. If you are overweight or have a history of poor eating habits, then there’s an excellent chance you have developed or are on your way to developing metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a series of health problems that stem from poor blood-sugar control and lead to increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The main symptoms are increased body fat around the midsection and insulin resistance. When people lose sensitivity to insulin, they have difficulty maintaining stable blood-sugar (glucose) levels and are subject to large blood-glucose swings in response to food intake. Since willpower is sensitive to these shifting glucose levels, metabolic syndrome makes it even harder to maintain your willpower and control your eating throughout the course of the day.

To make matters worse, hunger and exercise are not the only ways to deplete willpower. Research by Baumeister and other scientists has shown that we only have a single stock of willpower for everything we do, and any task that requires self-control will deplete you

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