Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes by Mark A. Pereira [best pdf books to read]


  • Full Title : Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention
  • Autor: Mark A. Pereira
  • Print Length: 234 pages
  • Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition
  • Publication Date: August 27, 2013
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1439850321
  • ISBN-13: 978-1439850329
  • Download File Format: pdf

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Over the past two decades, type 2 diabetes has emerged as a leading threat to global health, and the considerable overlap in obesity and diabetes trends are likely no coincidence. While the underpinnings for both etiologies are linked to lifestyles, particularly dietary and physical activity patterns, determining optimal approaches for preventing and managing type 2 diabetes using dietary composition remains a challenge. Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention rigorously examines various perspectives on diet and type 2 diabetes.

The book presents a comprehensive description and evaluation of the central research to date, primarily in humans, on the macronutrients and their subclasses, micronutrients, foods, beverages, and overall dietary patterns with respect to the risk of type 2 diabetes. It addresses the mediating/mechanistic role of obesity and body composition throughout the text where appropriate. The chapter authors, all leading researchers in the field, discuss fundamental nutritional principles applied to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes as well as applied behavioral studies on nutrition and diabetes for each subject area.

The depth and breadth of this book includes aspects of the “food synergy” model for understanding the complicated pathways between nutrition, dietary habits, and risk for type 2 diabetes. It also examines the effects of artificially sweetened beverages and coffee. This reference provides a review of the science on the potential impact of many components of dietary behavior and nutritional properties on etiology and risk for this disease, knowledge that is essential for formulating informed approaches to public health progress in this area.

 

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bably Buddhist traders and missionaries from the West who brought such ingredients and cooking techniques into Sichuan, and also left the legacy of an imaginative Buddhist vegetarian cuisine.

Sichuan pepper is the dominant spice in many dishes. Not related to Western black and white pepper, it is hot and pungent, leaving a numb sensation in the mouth. The use of chilli peppers and ginger adds additional layers of heat. Red (chilli) oil, sesame oil, various bean pastes and vinegars are common, as are nuts and sesame seeds in dishes like bang bang chicken. These flavours are uniquely Sichuanese, and are quite different from those in the rest of China.

Cooking styles are also unusual. ‘Fish flavoured’ (Yuxiang) sauces are made from ginger, garlic, vinegar, chilli and spring onions (scallions), usually served with vegetables like eggplant (aubergine), but never with even a hint of fish present. Other tastes include hot-and-sour (Cuan La), such as in the famous soup, and a numb-chilli flavour (Ma La), such as in the tofu dish ma po dofu with its fiery sauce. Sichuan also has its own version of the hotpot, the Chongqing hotpot, which is a heavily flavoured mix of chilli and oil and, true to the style of the region, is red-hot.

Chilli is widely used in other areas of the West, particularly in neighbouring Hunan and in Guangxi, whose Guilin chilli sauce is eaten all over China. Guangxi is also a major rice-growing region, with vast stepped terraces covering its hills.

Southwest China has the most varied mix of ethnic minorities in the country, and is the only area in which dairy products such as goat’s cheese are used. Muslim influences are also apparent and goat’s meat and dried beef are available. Yunnan ham is a whole ham cured in a sweetish style, and Yunnan specialities include steampot chicken, cooked with medicinal ingredients, and crossing-the-bridge noodles, cooked in a bowl of boiling hot broth.

THE FOOD OF THE SOUTH

The food of the South, and especially that of Guangdong (Canton), is renowned both within and outside China as the country’s finest. Guangdong has a subtropical climate that sustains rice crops and many vegetables and fruit virtually all year round, while an extensive coastline and inland waterways provide the freshest fish and shellfish.

The area also prides itself on its well-trained chefs, whose restaurants have always catered to the rich merchants of Guangzhou and Hong Kong. They insist on high-quality ingredients, which they cook in numerous ways: stir-fried, steamed or boiled, but which are usually kept simple and cooked with little oil to enhance the food’s fresh flavour.

The flavours of the South are relatively simple, emphasising the freshness of the food with just a delicate base of ginger, garlic and spring onions (scallions). Unlike the rest of China, spicy or fragrant condiments are often served with dishes, particularly sauces such as soy and chilli, so the diners can add their own flavourings. The area is responsible for the invention of oyster, hoi sin, black bean and XO sauces.

Guangzhou is known for its wonderful fish and seafood dishes, served in every restaurant. Always fresh, the customer picks from a large fish tank and specifies the cooking technique. The favoured meat of the South is without a doubt pork—often roasted or barbecued (char siu) and bought from the take-away counters of roast-meat restaurants, who hang up their wares to tempt in customers. Ducks are another favourite, bred all over the South and roasted until crispy. Dim sum is a speciality of Guangzhou and Hong Kong and these snacks, served in tea houses or dim sum restaurants, are universally popular.

The Cantonese are also known for eating just about anything—from shark’s fin and snakes to monkeys and dogs. The people of this region are certainly knowledgeable and adventurous about food, though many of the more esoteric ingredients are served only at specialized restaurants or are eaten mostly for their medicinal qualities.

As well as the Cantonese cooking of Guangdong, the South is also home to the food of the Hakka people, China’s gypsies, whose cooking is an earthier version of Cantonese, and Chiu Chow food from the East coast of the province, with its emphasis on seafood, goose and sauces. There are also specialities from Fujian and Taiwan.

饺子

Jiaozi

Perhaps no other food typifies the hearty characteristics of Northern home-style cooking more than these meat dumplings. You can buy good-quality wheat dumpling wrappers at Chinese grocers, which makes these a quick, easy snack to prepare.

makes 50

FILLING

300 g (11 oz) Chinese cabbage, finely chopped

1 teaspoon salt

450 g (1 lb) minced (ground) pork

100 g (3½ oz/3 bunches) Chinese garlic chives, finely chopped

2½ tablespoons light soy sauce

1 tablespoon Shaoxing rice wine

2 tablespoons roasted sesame oil

1 tablespoon finely chopped ginger

1 tablespoon cornflour (cornstarch)

50 round wheat dumpling wrappers

red rice vinegar or a dipping sauce

To make the filling, put the cabbage and salt in a bowl and toss lightly to combine. Leave for 30 minutes. Squeeze all the water from the cabbage and put the cabbage in a large bowl. Add the pork, garlic chives, soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, ginger and cornflour. Stir until combined and drain off any excess liquid.

Place a heaped teaspoon of the filling in the centre of each wrapper. Spread a little water along the edge of the wrapper and fold the wrapper over to make a half-moon shape. Use your thumb and index finger to form small pleats along the sealed edge. With the other hand, press the two opposite edges together to seal. Place the dumplings on a baking tray that has been lightly dusted with cornflour. Do not allow the dumplings to sit for too long or they will go soggy.

Bring a large saucepan of water to the boil. Add half the dumplings, stirring immediately to prevent them from sticking together, and return to the boil. For the traditional method of cooking dumplings, add 250 ml (9 fl oz/1 cup) cold water and continue cooking over high heat until the water boils. Add another 750 ml (26 fl oz/3 cups) cold water and cook until the water boils again. Alternatively, cook the dumplings in the boiling water for 8–9 minutes. Remove from the heat and drain the dumplings. Repeat with the remaining dumplings.

The dumplings can also be fried. Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a frying pan, add a single layer of dumplings and cook for 2 minutes, shaking the pan to make sure they don’t stick. Add 80 ml (2½ fl oz/1/3 cup) water, cover and steam for 2 minutes, then uncover and cook until the water has evaporated. Repeat with the remaining dumplings.

Serve with red rice vinegar or a dipping sauce.

春卷

Spring Rolls

The fat, solid spring rolls found in many Western restaurants are quite different from the slender and refined spring rolls that are traditionally made to celebrate Chinese New Year. Here’s an easy rendition of the classic.

makes 20

FILLING

5 tablespoons light soy sauce

2 teaspoons roasted sesame oil

3½ tablespoons Shaoxing rice wine

1½ teaspoons cornflour (cornstarch)

450 g (1 lb) centre-cut pork loin, trimmed and cut into very thin strips

6 dried Chinese mushrooms

½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

4 tablespoons oil

1 tablespoon finely chopped ginger

3 garlic cloves, finely chopped

150 g (5½ oz/2 cups) Chinese cabbage, finely shredded

150 g (5½ oz/1 cup) finely shredded carrot

30 g (1 oz/1 bunch) Chinese garlic chives, cut into 2 cm (¾ inch) lengths

180 g (6¼ oz/2 cups) bean sprouts

1 egg yolk

2 tablespoons plain (all-purpose) flour

20 square spring roll wrappers

oil for deep-frying

plum sauce

To make the filling, combine 2 tablespoons of the soy sauce and half the sesame oil with 1½ tablespoons of the rice wine and 1 teaspoon of the cornflour. Add the pork and toss to coat. Marinate in the fridge for 20 minutes. Meanwhile, soak the dried mushrooms in boiling water for 30 minutes, then drain and squeeze out any excess water. Remove and discard the stems and shred the caps. Combine the remaining soy sauce, sesame oil and cornflour with the black pepper.

Heat a wok over high heat, add half the oil and heat until very hot. Add the pork mixture and stir-fry for 2 minutes, or until cooked. Remove and drain. Wipe out the wok. Reheat the wok over high heat, add the remaining oil and heat until very hot. Stir-fry the mushrooms, ginger and garlic for 15 seconds. Add the cabbage and carrot and toss lightly. Pour in the remaining rice wine, then stir-fry for 1 minute. Add the garlic chives and bean sprouts and stir-fry for 1 minute, or until the sprouts are limp. Add the pork mixture and soy sauce mixture and cook until thickened. Transfer to a colander and drain for 5 minutes, tossing occasionally to remove the excess liquid.

Combine the egg yolk, flour and 3 tablespoons water. Place 2 tablespoons of filling on the corner of a wrapper, leaving the corner itself free. Spread some of the yolk mixture on the opposite corner. Fold over one corner and start rolling, but not too tightly. Fold in the other corners, roll up and press to secure. Repeat with the remaining wrappers.

Fill a wok one-quarter full with oil. Heat the oil to 190°C (375°F), or until a piece of bread fries golden brown in 10 seconds when dropped in the oil. Cook the spring rolls in two batches, turning constantly, for 5 minutes, or until golden. Remove and drain on paper towels. Serve with plum sauce.

叉烧包

Char Siu Bau

Mantou, or steamed buns, are a filling staple eaten all over China, but especially in the North. However, these filled, slightly sweet buns made with barbecue pork (char siu) are a Cantonese speciality, enjoyed in every dim sum restaurant.

MAKES 12 LARGE OR 24 SMALL

1 teaspoon oil

250 g (9 oz) barbecue pork (char siu), diced

3 teaspoons Shaoxing rice wine

1 teaspoon roasted sesame oil

2 tablespoons oyster sauce

2 teaspoons light soy sauce

3 teaspoons sugar

1 quantity basic yeast dough

chilli sauce

Heat the oil in a wok. Add the pork, rice wine, sesame oil, oyster sauce, soy sauce and sugar and cook for 1 minute. Leave to cool.

Divide the dough into 12 or 24 portions, depending on how large you want your buns to be, and cover with a tea towel. Working with one portion at a time, press the dough into circles with the edges thinner than the centre. Place 1 teaspoon of filling on the dough for a small bun or 3 teaspoons for a large bun. Draw the sides in to enclose the filling. Pinch the top together and put each bun on a square of greaseproof paper. When you get more proficient at making these, you may be able to get more filling into the buns, which will make them less doughy. Ensure that you seal them properly. The buns can also be turned over, then cooked the other way up so they look like round balls.

Place the buns well apart in three steamers. Cover and steam over simmering water in a wok, reversing the steamers halfway through, for 15 minutes, or until the buns are well risen and a skewer inserted into the centre comes out hot. Serve with some chilli sauce.

Gather in the tops of the buns as neatly as you can to make round balls. Bear in mind that they will open slightly as they cook to show their filling.

荷叶糯米团

Steamed Glutinous Rice in Lotus Leaves

Lor mai gai are a dim sum classic that also make good snacks. When steamed, the rice takes on the flavours of the other ingredients and from the lotus leaves themselves. The parcels can be made ahead and frozen, then steamed from frozen for 40 minutes.

makes 8

600 g (1 lb 5 oz/3 cups) glutinous rice

4 large lotus leaves

FILLING

2 tablespoons dried shrimp

4 dried Chinese mushrooms

2 tablespoons oil

360 g (13 oz) skinless chicken breast fillet, cut into 1 cm (½ inch) cubes

1 garlic clove, crushed

2 Chinese sausages (lap cheong), thinly sliced

2 spring onions (scallions), thinly sliced

1 tablespoon oyster sauce

3 teaspoons light soy sauce

3 teaspoons sugar

1 teaspoon roasted sesame oil

1 tablespoon cornflour (cornstarch)

chilli sauce

Place the rice in a bowl, cover with cold water and leave to soak overnight. Drain in a colander and place the rice in a bamboo steamer lined with a tea towel. Steam, covered, over simmering water in a wok for 30–40 minutes, or until the rice is cooked. Cool slightly before using.

Soak the lotus leaves in boiling water for 1 hour, or until softened. Shake dry and cut the leaves in half to make eight equal pieces.

To make the filling, soak the dried shrimp in boiling water for 1 hour, then drain. Soak the dried mushrooms in boiling water for 30 minutes, then drain and squeeze out any excess water. Remove and discard the stems and finely chop the caps.

Heat a wok over high heat, add half the oil and heat until very hot. Stir-fry the chicken for 2–3 minutes, or until browned. Add the dried shrimp, mushrooms, garlic, sausage and spring onion. Stir-fry for another 1–2 minutes, or until aromatic. Add the oyster sauce, soy sauce, sugar and sesame oil and toss well. Combine the cornflour with 185 ml (6 fl oz/¾ cup) water, add to the sauce and simmer until thickened.

With wet hands, divide the rice into 16 balls. Place the lotus leaves on a work surface, put a ball of rice in the centre of each leaf and flatten the ball slightly, making a slight indentation in the middle. Spoon one-eighth of the filling onto each rice ball, top with another slightly flattened rice ball and smooth into one ball. Wrap up firmly by folding the leaves over to form an envelope.

Place the parcels in three steamers. Cover and steam over simmering water in a wok, reversing the steamers halfway through, for 30 minutes. To serve, open up each leaf and eat straight from the leaf while hot with some chilli sauce.

虾饺

Har Gau

Har Gau are the benchmark dim sum by which restaurants are measured and they are not easy to make. The wheat starch dough is hard to handle and needs to be kept warm while you work with it, but the results are very satisfying.

MAKES 24

FILLING

500 g (1 lb 2 oz) prawns (shrimp)

45 g (1½ oz) pork or bacon fat (rind removed), finely chopped

40 g (1½ oz) fresh or tinned bamboo shoots, rinsed, drained and finely chopped

1 spring onion (scallion), finely chopped

1 teaspoon sugar

3 teaspoons light soy sauce

½ teaspoon roasted sesame oil

1 egg white, lightly beaten

1 teaspoon salt

1 tablespoon cornflour (cornstarch)

WRAPPER DOUGH

170 g (6 oz/1/3 cups) wheat starch

3 teaspoons cornflour (cornstarch)

2 teaspoons oil

soy sauce, chilli sauce or a dipping sauce

To make the filling, peel and devein the prawns and cut half of them into 1 cm (½ inch) chunks. Chop the remaining prawns until finely minced. Combine all the prawns in a large bowl. Add the pork or bacon fat, bamboo shoots, spring onion, sugar, soy sauce, sesame oil, egg white, salt and cornflour. Mix well and drain off any excess liquid.

To make the dough, put the wheat starch, cornflour and oil in a bowl. Add 250 ml (9 fl oz/1 cup) boiling water and mix until well combined. Add a little extra wheat starch if the dough is too sticky.

Roll the dough into a long cylinder, divide it into 24 pieces and cover with a hot damp tea towel. Working with one portion at a time, roll out the dough using a rolling pin or a well-oiled cleaver. If using a rolling pin, roll the dough into a 9–10 cm (3½–4 inch) round between two pieces of oiled plastic wrap. If using a cleaver, place the blade facing away from you and gently press down on the flat side of the blade with your palm, squashing the dough while twisting the handle to form a round shape. Fill each wrapper as you make it.

Place a heaped teaspoon of the filling in the centre of each wrapper. Spread a little water along the edge of the wrapper and fold the wrapper over to make a half-moon shape. Use your thumb and index finger to form small pleats along the top edge. With the other hand, press the two opposite edges together to seal. Place the har gau in four steamers lined with greaseproof paper punched with holes. Cover the har gau as you make them to prevent them from drying out.

Cover and steam the har gau over simmering water in a wok, reversing the steamers halfway through, for 6–8 minutes, or until the wrappers are translucent. Serve with soy sauce, chilli sauce or a dipping sauce.

DIM SUM

Dim sum are snacks and dumplings that ‘touch the heart’ and are central to the Cantonese tea house tradition of yum cha. Yum cha means simply ‘to drink tea’, but eating dim sum, reading newspapers and catching up with friends and family are all part of the experience.

The Chinese love to snack and each region has its favourites, from mantou and jiaozi in the North to little spicy Sichuan dishes. But it is in Guangzhou and Hong Kong’s tea houses that dim sum—China’s most famous snacks—are found.

Traditional tea houses are almost like a pub. Regulars, mostly older men, spend their early mornings sipping tea, eating just a few dim sum and reading the newspapers. In a few tea houses, the men are accompanied by their song birds, whose cages are hung up around the room. Today, most tea houses are bright, dim sum palaces. Often huge, multi-level restaurants, they work at a frantic, noisy pace, with office workers or families eating a whole meal of dim sum.

Dim sum is usually eaten mid-morning, but it can be found at any time, and even enjoyed as a midnight snack in busy Hong Kong. The meal begins by choosing a tea, usually pu’er (a black tea), jasmine or chrysanthemum. In fact, yum cha is the only meal where the tea is drunk with the food rather than before or afterwards. Anyone from the table can top up the tea cups during the meal, and they are thanked by tapping your fingers on the table, expressing gratitude even when mouths are full. To get the pot refilled, the lid is lifted to the side so the waiters can see that it is empty.

Sometimes dim sum is ordered from a menu, but in the most busy places it is usually taken around the tables in trays or trolleys hot from the kitchen. Servers shout out the name of the dishes they have and people lift up the lids to peak at what is on offer. There may also be ‘stations’ where noodles are fried and vegetables cooked. Dim sum mostly come in small steamers or dishes, usually three servings to a portion.

Dim sum are rarely made at home and restaurants prize their chefs, who make everything by hand. These chefs undergo an apprenticeship of 3 years, and take another 5 years on average to become fully qualified dim sum chefs.

萝卜糕

Turnip Cake

One of the more common dim sum, turnip cake is sold by women pushing hot plates on trolleys. Each portion of the turnip cake is freshly fried to order. Serve with light soy sauce or a chilli sauce for dipping.

MAKES 6

900 g (2 lb) Chinese turnip, grated

30 g (1 oz) dried shrimp

20 g (¾ oz/2 cups) dried Chinese mushrooms

150 g (5½ oz) Chinese sausage (lap cheong)

1 tablespoon oil

3 spring onions (scallions), thinly sliced

3 teaspoons sugar

3 teaspoons Shaoxing rice wine

¼ teaspoon freshly ground white pepper

2 tablespoons finely chopped coriander (cilantro)

290 g (10¼ oz/12/3 cups) rice flour

oil for frying

Place the turnip in a large bowl and cover with boiling water for 5 minutes. Drain, reserving any liquid, then leave the turnip to drain in a colander. When it is cool enough to handle, squeeze out any excess liquid. Place in a large bowl.

Soak the dried shrimp in boiling water for 1 hour, then drain, adding any soaking liquid to the reserved turnip liquid.

Soak the dried

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