Pastry by Richard Bertinet [download free kindle books]


  • Full Title : Pastry
  • Autor: Richard Bertinet
  • Print Length: 224 pages
  • Publisher: Ebury
  • Publication Date: May 1, 2012
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0091943477
  • ISBN-13: 978-0091943479
  • Download File Format: azw3

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Bestselling author Richard Bertinet uses simple techniques and step-by-step photography to teach you how to make four different types of pastry before you put your skills to the test with a mouthwatering collection of over 50 recipes. He also dismisses the myths of making pastry and gives you his top tips on how to avoid mistakes or how to put them right if you do slip up. With recipes ranging from savories, such as Duck Pie, Pumpkin and Ricotta Tarts and Sausage Rolls, to all the sweet treats you can imagine, such as delectable Prune and Rum Tarts, Passion Fruit Cheesecakes and a sumptuous Tarte Tatin, this is every cook’s pastry bible. Beautifully illustrated with line drawings and colour photography by the award-winning photographer Jean Cazals, this is essential reading for every budding baker.

 

Bestselling author Richard Bertinet uses simple techniques and step-by-step photography to teach you how to make four different types of pastry before you put your skills to the test with a mouthwatering collection of over 50 recipes. He also dismisses the myths of making pastry and gives you his top tips on how to avoid mistakes or how to put them right if you do slip up. With recipes ranging from savories, such as Duck Pie, Pumpkin and Ricotta Tarts and Sausage Rolls, to all the sweet treats you can imagine, such as delectable Prune and Rum Tarts, Passion Fruit Cheesecakes and a sumptuous Tarte Tatin, this is every cook’s pastry bible. Beautifully illustrated with line drawings and colour photography by the award-winning photographer Jean Cazals, this is essential reading for every budding baker.

>>>Download<<<

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Developing taste preferences

Children are born with innate taste preferences – such as an innate preference for sweet and an innate dislike for bitter. But despite these early preferences, children develop in vastly different ways according to their food environment, which is largely shaped by their parents. To start, a baby’s taste preferences form according to what she tastes in the womb and in breastmilk, which makes her mum’s diet a crucial influence on her own likes and dislikes. But once a child starts solids, her taste preferences develop according to the food that’s put on her plate.

Interestingly, scientists have done quite a bit of research into children’s food preferences and they believe that children’s early taste experiences – during their first year of life – can shape their taste preferences for years to come. For example, one study found that children who were given a sour-tasting hydrolysate formula milk in their first year were significantly more likely to prefer sour-flavoured apple juice at 4–5 years old. Although the theory is yet to be tested extensively, it appears that the first months of life may constitute a critical ‘sensitive window’ for flavour learning, potentially with lifelong consequences.

With this in mind, introducing solids as part of family meals provides the perfect opportunity to expose your child to as many different flavours as possible. By bringing your baby to the family table and simply letting her share your home-cooked meal – whether in puréed form, or as finger foods (see Adapting family meals for babies for a general guide on how to adapt family meals for babies) – you’ll help her to develop a liking for a wide range of ingredients and a taste for your home cooking. Plus, she’ll also have all the fun that comes with getting stuck into a proper meal – squishing some avocado, diving into some noodles – undoubtedly more wondrous than any toy you could buy. Compare that with a baby who only experiences packaged baby food in her first year, with such limited flavour and texture experiences, it’s no wonder that approach seems so often to produce the pickiest of eaters.

Mental health and academic performance

Once children are a bit older, and particularly during their pre-teen and teenage years, clear evidence emerges of the positive impact of family meals on their psychological wellbeing. A number of studies have found that family meals are associated with fewer depressive symptoms, fewer suicidal thoughts or attempts, better emotional wellbeing, greater life satisfaction and higher academic performance. Interestingly, this link has been found even after adjusting for demographic factors, such as wealth and education. In other words, family meals seem to offer protection against mental health problems in their own right, despite the characteristics of the particular family.

In one US study, girls who had more than seven family meals per week were almost half as likely to have attempted suicide as girls who ate no family meals. In another US study, teens who had frequent family meals were twice as likely to report having high self-esteem, a commitment to learning, being engaged at school and resisting negative peer pressure than those eating few or no family dinners.

While the psychological impact of family meals is clearest in older children, which is where most of the research has been focused to date, a recent US study found that being involved in family dinners was linked with better social-emotional health even in pre-school aged children.

Eating disorders

Numerous studies have also found that family meals help to protect children against developing an eating disorder, particularly where the atmosphere at mealtimes is positive. For example, one US study found that girls who had only one to two family meals per week were more than twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviour as girls who had three to four family meals per week. Another US study similarly found that teens who had frequent family meals were half as likely to engage in binge or purge eating as those who had few or no family meals each week.

Drug and alcohol use

Family meals have been a major research focus of the US National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. According to the Center, over their years of examining how to prevent drug and alcohol abuse, parental engagement at the dinner table has emerged as ‘one of the most potent tools to help parents raise healthy, drug-free children’. In a recent study, they found that, compared to teens who have dinner with their parents five to seven times a week, teens who have fewer than three family dinners per week are three-and-a-half times more likely to say it’s okay for teens their age to get drunk and almost three times more likely to say it’s okay for teens their age to use marijuana. Similar links have been found elsewhere, with another US study finding that teens who had frequent family meals were half as likely to report using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs as those who had few or no family meals each week.

Family cohesion

Not surprisingly, the research into family meals has also revealed that families who regularly eat together are more likely to be a cohesive, supportive unit. For example, the US National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse has found that, compared with teenagers who eat few family dinners per week, teens who have frequent family meals are five times less likely to say their parents know ‘very little or nothing at all’ about what’s really going on in their lives. Another US study has revealed that teenagers who eat frequent family dinners are three times more likely to report having family support, positive family communication and parental involvement in school, than those who eat one or fewer family dinners per week.

Aside from all these statistics, family meals are a precious time to step away from the computer, put down the phone, turn off the television and talk to one another. It can be really hard to put that into practice in the everyday craziness of our lives (don’t I know it!). But for those nights you can manage it, rest assured that over the years the investment will pay off.

BABY AND FAMILY MEALS

Making the transition from milk feeds to solid foods can be a daunting time for many parents. There seem to be so many rules! If you would like a comprehensive guide to feeding your baby – including meal planners and recipes for different stages – you can find it in my book Cooking For Your Baby and Toddler. Below is an overview of the key points you need to know.

Best age to start solids

The best age to start solids is a controversial subject and official advice has changed over the years. However, based on the latest research, ‘around 6 months’ is now widely recommended as the ideal age, including in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and the US.

Although the phrase ‘around 6 months’ is typically not defined, it’s often interpreted in practice to mean between 22 and 26 weeks, which equates to between 5 and 6 months.

You sometimes hear certain groups, including allergy associations, argue that solids should ideally be introduced before this time – as early as 4 months – but there are good reasons not to be in a rush to begin. For a start, breastmilk is the ultimate food for your baby, and starting solids too early can interfere with her milk supply. Furthermore, young babies have immature kidneys and digestive systems that simply can’t cope with much solid food. By around 6 months, their bodies are more developed for processing solids.

Conversely, introducing solids much later than 6 months is also problematic. Babies’ iron levels start to deplete at this time and they need iron-rich foods to restore them. Furthermore, there is some evidence that delaying solids may increase the risk of food allergy. Solids are also needed at around 6 months for the optimal development of certain motor skills, such as chewing.

When to introduce certain foods

The old rules that stated you should introduce solids in a particular order – such as rice cereal on Day One, pumpkin purée on Day Two, avocado on Day Three and so on – are no longer based on current science. Thank goodness for that, because they certainly made starting solids a high-maintenance, anxiety-inducing task!

The latest thinking is:

• When you start your baby on solids at around 6 months, you don’t need to delay introducing any food. In fact, delaying common allergens, such as egg, appears to increase the chances of your baby being allergic.

• With the important exception of certain contraband items – listed on Food and drinks to avoid – you can give your baby any food you like from the beginning, preferably plenty of iron-rich foods.

• You don’t need to worry about introducing foods in a particular order. It doesn’t matter if you give rice cereal first, then sweet potato, then apple. The idea that you have to follow a strict order is nonsense.

• You don’t need to wait 3 –5 days before introducing a new food. Although this will help you identify the cause if your child has an allergic reaction, the majority of children won’t have a reaction and the waiting game is a nuisance. Giving new foods in quick succession does not increase your child’s allergy risk.

Food and drinks to avoid

Although the rules around introducing potential allergens have relaxed, there are still some foods you shouldn’t give your baby, as set out in the table on Food and drinks to avoid. The main culprits are cow’s milk as a drink (babies should be having breastmilk or formula milk instead) and foods or drinks with added salt or sugar.

As a general rule, if you’re giving your baby home-cooked foods made from fresh ingredients without sugar or salt, you’re probably doing the right thing. But, it’s definitely worth being familiar with this list to make sure you’re aware of the potential risks.

Food and drinks to avoid

Food/Drink to avoid Until which age? Reason

Honey 12 months Small risk of infant botulism.

Foods high in added sugar 12 months, but preferably as long as possible Can displace nutrient-dense foods, cause dental damage and create a stronger taste preference for sweet foods.

Foods high in added salt/sodium 12 months, but preferably as long as possible Places too much strain on babies’ developing kidneys, and can create a stronger taste preference for salty foods.

Cow’s milk as a drink 12 months Can be a major contributor to iron deficiency anaemia. Small amounts used in cooking are fine.

Goat’s milk, sheep’s milk and almond milk as drinks 2 years Nutritionally incomplete, can be a contributor to iron deficiency anaemia. Breastmilk, formula milk or – after baby’s first birthday – pasteurised cow’s milk are preferred milk drinks. Soy, rice and oat milk can be given after your baby’s first birthday, so long as they are full-fat, fortified varieties.

Sweet drinks, including soft drinks and juices 12 months, but preferably as long as possible Displaces nutrient-dense foods and milk, plus they create a risk of dental damage and obesity.

Raw/under-cooked eggs (including raw egg products like homemade mayonnaise) 2 years Risk of salmonella poisoning. You should cook eggs until the whites have completely set and the yolks have started to thicken.

Reduced-fat or skim dairy foods 2 years or older Dietary fat derived from full-fat dairy foods is an important source of energy for growing infants, plus full-fat products sometimes contain more nutrients than skim products.

Hard, small/round foods (such as whole grapes, popcorn and whole nuts) around 4 years Risk of choking.

Uncooked fermented meats (such as salami) 5 years Higher risk of food poisoning (‘heat-treated’ or ‘cooked’ products are safe – check the label).

Raw sprouts (such as alfalfa, radish and mung bean sprouts) 5 years Higher risk of food poisoning.

Artificial sweeteners for as long as possible There is very little data about the safety or risk of artificial sweeteners when consumed by infants and toddlers.

Tea, coffee and caffeinated soft drinks for as long as possible High caffeine content overstimulates a child’s nervous system and the tannins in tea bind with iron and other minerals, reducing absorption and contributing to iron deficiency.

Getting the texture right

To help your baby develop proper chewing skills, it’s important to adjust the texture of her food over the passing months. When your baby first starts solids, you will need to keep her purées very smooth, with a semi-liquid consistency similar to runny custard. Mix as much liquid (water or your baby’s milk – you can use expressed breastmilk or formula) through your purées as you need to achieve this texture. You should also avoid any big lumps as they’re a bit much for a young baby to cope with.

As your baby gets the hang of eating, start to move to lumpier purées and mashes, which are very important for learning to chew. If she kicks up a fuss, you can make the transition more gradual, but make sure you’re also giving her plenty of finger food for her chewing practice. Also, you may find your baby is more comfortable with a thicker, overall lumpier purée, than a thin purée with the occasional big lump. For those of you trying ‘baby-led weaning’ you will skip purées and begin with finger foods from the time of starting solids.

Watching out for food allergies

Monitor your baby closely when you introduce the following nine foods, which cause over 90 per cent of food allergies: cow’s milk, egg, fish, shellfish, peanuts, sesame, wheat, soy and tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews and walnuts). If your baby has an allergy to one of these, you’ll probably know about it within a few hours of her eating it, possibly even a few minutes.

Getting through the first taste of a food doesn’t mean she’s not allergic – she may not have any reaction until the second or subsequent taste.

If you have a family history of allergies, you should have a chat with your doctor, who may have particular, individual advice for your baby.

Finger foods

If your baby can sit upright with little or no support, there’s no reason you can’t start offering her finger foods from the age of 6 months, and certainly by 8 or 9 months.

Don’t expect her to start munching and swallowing finger foods from the start.

To begin with, they’re just a fantastic plaything, undoubtedly more amazing than any toy you could give her. But as the weeks progress, you will notice your baby start to get a good handle on them, get them to her own mouth, have a little gummy chew and – finally – swallow.

When choosing finger foods, go for larger shapes that your baby is able to grasp, and avoid any choking hazards, such as nuts, whole grapes, popcorn and carrot sticks. Make sure that your baby is sitting upright, and never give her food if she’s not closely supervised. Also make sure you know what first-aid steps to follow in the event she does start choking.

To begin, finger foods should be soft so that your baby is able to mouth them. One exception is rusks, which should be hard enough that your baby can’t bite pieces off and choke on them.

Adapting family meals for babies

When your baby first starts solids, you might like to have a week or two where you give her quite simple purées, such as chicken and pumpkin, or apple and rice cereal. Once she’s accepting these and you’re not detecting any food allergies, you can start to be more adventurous. All you need to do is prepare her the same food that the rest of the family is eating, puréeing and mashing it in the early months and then transitioning to finger foods as she gets older.

Unless otherwise noted, all of the recipes in this book are suitable for babies aged 6 months and older and each recipe provides adaptations both for younger babies (6–9 months as a general guide) and older babies (10–12 months). Remember not to add sugar or salt or other ingredients that aren’t appropriate for babies, such as honey, raw eggs and any choking hazards (see the full list on Food and Drinks to Avoid).

Preparing purées

There aren’t many foods that can’t be puréed although some foods – such as fruit, vegetables and meats – will obviously work better than others, such as salad or crispy foods.

The first step for preparing a purée is to choose an appropriate blending appliance. Your options include:

• a hand-held stick blender for smaller quantities – they’re also good for putting straight into a saucepan;

• a blender for medium quantities and foods that blend easily;

• a food processor or a high-powered appliance, such as a Thermomix, for larger quantities or foods that blend less easily.

The next step is to add as much liquid as you need to achieve the appropriate consistency for your baby. In some cases, such as a casserole, you may not need to add any, as the cooking liquids may be adequate.

Where some liquid is required you can use water or your baby’s milk – expressed breast milk or formula milk. A little cow’s milk from time to time is also fine, it’s just not as nutrient-dense as your baby’s drinking milk, and it definitely shouldn’t be served as a drink.

It is generally recommended to give babies under 12 months cooled, boiled tap water, rather than water straight from the tap. However, if you’re confident that your water is of a high-quality drinking standard, you may feel comfortable serving it to your baby from 6 months. Most purified water is also fine, although it may not contain fluoride, which is important for dental health. Avoid sparkling water as it can have added minerals, including salt, which aren’t always suitable for babies.

Plain (unsweetened) yoghurt can also be mixed through a purée to achieve the right consistency.

Where a purée is too runny – such as a soup – you can use a number of different ingredients to thicken it including rice cereal, quinoa, couscous and pasta stars.

Storing purées

Once you’ve prepared a batch of purée, you can set aside one serving and then put the remainder in individual storage containers to use later. Pop them immediately into the fridge or freezer. Purées will typically last up to 3 days in the fridge and several months in the freezer.

Don’t freeze foods more than once. The exception to this is frozen raw ingredients which you then cook. For example, it’s fine to put frozen peas in a beef casserole and then freeze the casserole.

If you want to avoid a case of food poisoning, it’s useful to know that the ‘temperature danger zone’ at which maximum bacterial growth occurs is 5°C–60°C (41°F–140°F). To keep out of this zone, you need to keep cold foods below this range and hot foods above it.

Eating together

In the early months of starting solids, it can be virtually impossible to time dinner so that it fits in with your baby, so you might prefer to leave it to weekends to include her at the family table. As your baby gets older and her routines change, you might be able to bring dinnertime forward. However, ultimately, your sanity is more important than having your baby at the table. So if a relaxed late dinner with your partner is the highlight of your day, then don’t change a thing. Once your baby reaches the toddler and pre-schooler years, eating together becomes far more feasible, so it will happen all in good time.

Developing taste preferences

While it may often feel like the reverse is true, as a parent, you have an extraordinary amount of control over your child’s taste preferences. Babies first experience taste in the womb, via the amniotic fluid, and then as a newborn, via breastmilk. There have been studies showing that breastfed babies are more accepting of fruit and vegetables than formula-fed babies if their mothers regularl

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