The 50 Best Tapas Recipes by Adams Media [ebook library free]

  • Full Title : The 50 Best Tapas Recipes: Tasty, fresh, and easy to make!
  • Autor: Adams Media
  • Print Length: 97 pages
  • Publisher: Adams Media
  • Publication Date: December 1, 2011
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B006K92486
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format: epub


They’re tasty. They’re easy. And they’re right at your fingertips. The 50 Best Tapas Recipes is an appetizing selection of delicious mini-dishes that pack in the flavor. From Honey-Ginger Peanuts to Wine and Pomegranate Lamb Kebobs, there’s plenty included so you can whip up satisfying small plates. Enjoy!




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rs are a minefield from the inside and a mystery from the outside. This A to Z aims to bridge the gap between psychology and everyday life, demystifying the key issues and terminology and giving everyone the confidence to deal with these complex conditions.

One thing is clear: eating disorders are about much more than just food or body weight. This A to Z explores the subject from a wide range of angles – physiological and psychological, body and mind, head and heart, emotional, social, medical and nutritional. Whatever the disorder, the impact on an individual’s life is considerable. It affects not only physical health but also education or career, friendships, professional interactions and intimate relationships. Food is ever-present in our society, and eating with others is an everyday social bonding experience. To find oneself trapped in the cycle of disordered eating can be intensely isolating. Eating disorders are a heavy burden to carry.

I have balanced the coverage between anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, BED and other ED-NOS. Of course these conditions do not fit under neat labels and people commonly present with a range of different behaviours, sometimes restricting and at other times bingeing and purging. I’ve explored the issues around body image – from simple confidence and self-esteem, to the more serious body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). I’ve also looked at less common conditions, such as childhood eating disorders and night-eating syndrome. In addition, I have touched on the recent findings of neurobiological research into eating disorders, which is promising but still at an early stage.

Eating disorders affect not only the person but also the entire family. This A to Z is written with an awareness of parents and siblings, friends and partners. Few conditions are as disruptive to family life as eating disorders: as well as creating tension at mealtimes, there are the deceit, secrecy and subterfuge that surround a disordered relationship with food. Many parents of young people with eating disorders blame themselves for the illness and wonder what they did wrong. While the stress on families is considerable, they are also an invaluable source of support and love during the recovery process.

One of the most important findings to come out of research in this area is that eating disorders are emphatically not confined to teenage girls. They can affect anyone, of any age, gender, sex or social class. From the young man fighting anorexia to the middle-aged mother struggling with BED to the elderly man hiding bulimia, disordered eating can be a way of coping with loneliness, depression or even boredom. It may be a reaction to serious trauma or abuse or it may simply develop from the cycle of deprivation and excess of constant dieting. There are no rules respecting who gets ill and, sadly, as yet, no cure.

Greater awareness around eating disorders has coincided with the explosion of social media and all that goes along with it, notably the sheer visibility of bodies – especially women’s bodies – everywhere every day. We are bombarded with thousands of images on celebrity gossip sites, of digitally retouched bodies in advertising and endless selfies on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. Although the online world has given many lonely people a voice, enabling them to write about their personal experiences and struggles through blogs and internet forums, it has also fuelled the compare-and-despair cycle that makes many young people feel inadequate, scrolling through other people’s apparently perfect lives. The internet has also enabled the proliferation of dangerous ‘pro-ana’ and ‘pro-mia’ websites which glamorize and even promote conditions such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

As incidence and awareness have grown, so has the need for accurate information. Eating disorders may be on the public agenda, but they remain widely misunderstood. Let’s be honest, eating disorders are almost impossible to understand from the outside. In severe anorexia, for example, it seems incomprehensible that these people could truly believe they are overweight or not accept how desperately they need to eat. Because the consequences are often shockingly visible – emaciation or obesity – eating disorders are seen as physical illnesses. It is assumed that these individuals are obsessed with being thin and attaining the perfect body or they’re inordinately greedy and have no self-control. In most cases, however, restricting, bingeing and purging and compulsive overeating have their roots in difficult emotions or other painful problems. In this A to Z, I have emphasized the psychological – as much as the physical – aspects of eating disorders.

It must also be noted that eating disorders are not always visible. Conditions such as bulimia nervosa do not necessarily lead to marked weight gain or loss; many people remain a normal weight despite disrupted and dangerous purging behaviours. Sadly, this means that the problems remain hidden and untreated.

This element of secrecy is common to almost all disordered eating. Although every individual and every illness is different, they share this overwhelming sense of shame, guilt and secrecy. Whether they are anorexic, bulimic or binge-eating, people feel embarrassed about their struggles and ashamed to ask for help. They pretend they’re OK because it seems silly to admit they can’t cope. Also, whether undereating or overeating, there is a sense of being out of control around food, of trying to regain control or impose order on a situation that feels unmanageable (in anorexia, say) or of giving up and burying one’s emotions in food (as in BED).

As well as providing factual information and the latest research, I hope the A to Z will reassure anyone with any eating disorder that it is not a life sentence. Although it must be acknowledged that these are life-threatening conditions, they can be overcome. Whether you’re at your lowest point of the illness or well on your way to full recovery, I want you to believe that it can be beaten. From overweight to underweight, overeating to undereating, bingeing, purging, constantly dieting or just privately hating your body, you are not alone. The experience of disordered eating is bewildering and lonely, but there is nothing to be ashamed of, and there is great strength in asking for help.

A word on terminology. In the interests of brevity, I have mostly used the term ‘individual,’ ‘person’ or ‘people’ to describe the person with the eating disorder. This seems preferable to the terms ‘anorexic’, ‘bulimic’ or ‘binge-eater’ – although I sometimes use them – but I’m aware how reductive these labels can feel. You are a person, not an eating disorder, a mental illness or a collection of symptoms. Please be assured, in every case I simply mean ‘the individual with the eating disorder’ and do not wish to define or stigmatize anyone.

I hope that this A to Z will carry you from illness to recovery with determination and optimism, and I wish you well on your journey back to health.



The term ‘addiction’ usually refers to some kind of illegal or damaging behaviour. Food is a completely legal substance and eating is a normal social activity. Food, however, is also a deeply personal issue and disordered eating encompasses a wide range of complicated and individual behaviours. Just like oxygen, food is a fundamental physiological requirement, but we have made eating far more complicated than breathing. We all need food in order to stay alive, but what, when and how much we eat can easily get out of control.

For someone with an eating disorder, food is often both a best friend and a worst enemy. Eating can be a reward and a punishment, consoling and confusing, comforting and guilt-inducing, all at the same time. Starving, purging or bingeing to the point of sickness are painful and pointless behaviours, yet they are self-inflicted (at least at the start). The question is: why would anyone choose such behaviour and how does it become addictive?

Conditions such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and BED are highly complex mental illnesses and stubbornly resistant to treatment. Unlike a drug or alcohol addiction, beating an eating disorder is not a simple case of avoiding the substance altogether: you have to learn to eat in order to live.

Eating disorders also bring other problems with them. Alcohol and drug abuse, overspending and even shoplifting (see KLEPTOMANIA) are common co-addictions, or dual disorders, in those with disordered eating. It appears that many of the emotional factors fuelling these problematic behavioural patterns are similar. These factors may include guilt, hunger, boredom or a need to find an escape route from difficult feelings. Drugs or alcohol may be used initially to numb depression or anxiety or help with sleeping problems.

Exercise addiction is also extremely common in those with eating disorders. In recent years, exercise has become more intense than ever before and it has become fashionable to work out really hard, for women as well as for men. A swim or aerobics session no longer cuts it: instead gyms offer a wide choice of ‘bootcamp’ workouts, circuit training and spin classes. Kick-boxing and military-style fitness classes are full of very toned, fit, thin individuals burning hundreds of calories early in the morning or late at night, often on little fuel. Participation in marathons, triathlons and Iron Man competitions has soared as ‘normal’ non-athletes push themselves further and further.

It is difficult for outsiders – friends, family, even medical professionals – to accept that an eating disorder and compulsive exercise can be such powerful addictions, but there is growing evidence to suggest that they really are. While exercising regularly and eating healthily are beneficial for most people, in vulnerable individuals they can easily become dangerous, compulsive and sometimes life-threatening addictions.


As we have seen, eating disorders often go hand in hand with other forms of addiction and substance abuse, including alcohol.

Individuals with restrictive eating habits such as anorexia are wary of calories in all forms and many of them avoid drinking alcohol for the ‘empty calories’ it contains. Still, it’s estimated that around 15 to 20 per cent of those with anorexia drink excessive amounts of alcohol. In other eating disorders, however, such as bulimia and BED, alcohol abuse is more common, affecting between 30 and 50 per cent of those with binge–purge behaviours. Just as with food, these individuals commonly drink large quantities of alcohol in sporadic binge sessions.

Occasional overindulgence is part of Western culture – getting tipsy at large social events is considered normal, for example – but repeated binge-drinking is far more serious. Many who have BED and bulimia are also affected by substance abuse disorders. A combination of chemical, psychological and sociocultural factors makes them even more vulnerable to addiction. Just as high levels of sugar and fat in binge-eating cause an initial dopamine surge in the brain, so the first few alcoholic drinks create a feeling of euphoria and confidence. People may find themselves bingeing more and more frequently on food and alcohol because they crave that intense rush of chemicals. If they have low dopamine levels – common in those with slight to moderate depression – the dopamine rush seems to lift their depressed mood.

In situations of stress or anxiety, common in everyday life, individuals predisposed to BED or alcoholism may find themselves turning to alcohol or other drugs as a coping mechanism. As with many aspects of an eating disorder, the initial behaviour sets up a cycle of deprivation, craving, excess and guilt. Low self-esteem and low impulse control contribute to problems with alcohol and other substance abuse.

Alcohol abuse is always a cause for concern, but it’s particularly dangerous in those who are malnourished, underweight, vomiting frequently or drinking on an empty stomach. It can cause alcohol poisoning, memory loss, blackouts, injuries, brain damage and even death. (See also DRUNKOREXIA.)


This describes the generalized difficulties of putting feelings into words seen in some individuals with anorexia. Although often highly intelligent and otherwise articulate, they may struggle to express their emotions and distinguish between facts and feelings. This may be due to specific cognitive deficits associated with anorexia (see COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT) or it may be due to the many conflicting emotions they experience around food, eating and their own bodies.




Many people find alternative or complementary therapies effective for dealing with a range of physical and emotional issues. From acupuncture, aromatherapy, homeopathy and naturopathy to massage, reflexology, meditation and mindfulness, complementary therapies are based on a belief in the body’s ability to heal itself. In general, they adopt an holistic approach to the workings of the body, taking into account the mind–body balance. They are thought to be less invasive than conventional medicine and cause fewer unpleasant side effects.

In theory, eating disorders should respond well to complementary therapies. Anorexia, bulimia and other forms of disordered eating have a significant psychological component, which should make them ideally suited to this more holistic, person-centred approach. Clinical research into complementary therapies in relation to eating disorders is limited, however, and therefore evidence-based data are lacking. As alternative or complementary therapies fall outside mainstream health care, they are generally offered by private practitioners.

Evidence suggests that individuals with severely disordered eating respond best to psychotherapy and other talking therapies, as well as nutritional counselling. Anecdotally, however, many people find complementary, holistic mind–body treatments effective for coping with depression and anxiety, which lie at the root of many eating disorders, or find them beneficial during times of emotional stress and anxiety. Complementary practitioners tailor their treatments to the individual, listening to address specific physical or psychological concerns, and can offer a genuine boost to individuals struggling with eating disorders, but these approaches are not sufficient as stand-alone treatments. They contribute to general health, both mental and physical, and can help with hormonal or nutritional imbalances. They can promote a sense of mental well-being, relaxation and calm. In conjunction with conventional medicines and talking therapies, therefore, complementary therapies can help during the recovery process.

Some herbal treatments can interact with other medications so you should always consult your doctor or counsellor before embarking on complementary or alternative therapies.


This is a condition in which periods are absent. There are many reasons why periods may be missed, but in the context of eating disorders, we will focus on weight-related causes.

If you are not pregnant, breastfeeding or approaching the menopause, you should be menstruating on a regular ‘monthly’ cycle (cycles shorter or longer than this are normal, however). Missing periods for several months in a row, and certainly for more than six months, is a cause for concern, though, and should be discussed with your GP.

Essential hormones that control the female menstrual cycle are very sensitively balanced and easily upset when body fat, calories, energy or activity levels become imbalanced. Body fat is essential for the female reproductive system to function, and women need adequate stores of body fat in case of pregnancy. Amenorrhoea is common in anorexia, as well as in those who are underweight or have lost a large amount of weight rapidly. This absence of periods may be the first sign that something is wrong.

When calories are being severely restricted, the body’s warning systems go off. The body goes into famine mode, concentrating all its precious resources on keeping it alive. Calories are channelled towards the vital organs and non-essential functions, such as the reproductive system, shut down. To put it simply, with barely enough food for one person, let alone two, the anorexic body cannot risk getting pregnant.

It is generally agreed that body fat needs to be around 17 per cent for menstruation – this explains why female athletes who have a higher than normal muscle-to-fat ratio may miss periods. Even though their calorie intake is high, their energy expenditure is also high and their body fat is low. (See also ATHLETIC TRIAD and EXERCISE.) Some put the figure for body fat lower: the American College of Sports Medicine, for example, gives a range of 8 to 12 per cent essential body fat to maintain menstruation. While low body fat contributes to menstrual dysfunction and amenorrhoea, it’s clear that other factors, such as low calorie intake, inadequate nutrition and excessive exercise, are also highly significant.

In overweight women, there is more than enough body fat, but this can also cause menstrual disturbances, as increased amounts of body fat are related to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin – a protein that governs the activities of the sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone. Although most oestrogen is produced by the ovaries, some is made in body fat and other sites, and body fat also acts as an oestrogen store. Too much fat therefore causes hormonal imbalance, which disrupts normal egg development and ovulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome is also a common cause of amenorrhoea and can be alleviated by weight loss.

The good news is that, for both overweight and underweight individuals, amenorrhoea is largely reversible. Losing excess weight, or regaining healthy weight, is highly effective at restoring healthy hormone balance. When weight and body fat are at healthy levels – not too high and not too low – hormone levels return to normal, stimulating ovulation and regular periods (see also FERTILITY AND INFERTILITY). However, young girls who have primary amenorrhoea, whose periods never start, may permanently damage their reproductive system and never menstruate as adults.


Anaemia occurs when the body’s red blood cell count is lower than normal. The body needs iron to produce red blood cells, which help store and transport oxygen around the body. When red blood cell levels are low, the body’s organs and tissues do not receive as much oxygen as they need. Symptoms of anaemia include fatigue or lethargy, shortness of breath, dizziness or muscle weakness, skin pallor, repeated infections or illness, depression, confusion and poor memory. (See also IRON.)

The most common form of anaemia – iron deficiency anaemia (caused by insufficient or poor absorption of iron) – is often seen in eating disorders. In anorexic individuals, iron deficiency may be caused by the general nutritional deficiencies of a restrictive diet. Additionally, these individuals are often vegetarian or vegan, thus avoiding animal products, which are a reliable source of iron. In bulimia, bingeing and purging behaviours lead to iron deficiencies due to repeated vomiting and the disrupted digestion and absorption of food.

Iron deficiency anaemia is straightforward to diagnose and treat and, in most cases, simple iron supplementation is sufficient. (See also VITAMIN B GROUP.) In anaemia linked to eating disorders, symptoms will improve as nutritional balance is restored in line with overall physical recovery. Food sources of iron include dark green leafy vegetables, brown rice, pulses, beans, nuts, seeds, iron-fortified


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