The 50 Best Whole-Grain Recipes by [healthy recipes]

  • Full Title : The 50 Best Whole-Grain Recipes: Tasty, fresh, and easy to make!
  • Autor: 
  • Print Length: 103 pages
  • Publisher: Adams Media
  • Publication Date: November 1, 2011
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B0062ACQAY
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format: epub


They’re tasty. They’re easy to make. And they’re right at your fingertips. The 50 Best Whole-Grain Recipes is an appetizing selection of dishes that are as hearty and healthy as they are flavorful and delicious. From Oatmeal Raisin Scones to Chicken and Apricot Roulades, there’s plenty included so you can whip up satisfying and tasty snacks and meals. Enjoy! They’re tasty. They’re easy to make. And they’re right at your fingertips. The 50 Best Whole-Grain Recipes is an appetizing selection of dishes that are as hearty and healthy as they are flavorful and delicious. From Oatmeal Raisin Scones to Chicken and Apricot Roulades, there’s plenty included so you can whip up satisfying and tasty snacks and meals. Enjoy!




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e that this volume will help to promote the use of a more precise vocabulary for describing the taste of food, especially texture or mouthfeel.

The answers concerning why mouthfeel is so intimately linked to a healthy diet lead immediately to a host of new questions about what one needs to do to prepare raw ingredients and produce dishes that enhance this aspect of our daily food intake. How does one best thicken a soup or a sauce? How does one produce a crisp crackling on a pork roast? What is the secret of homemade mayonnaise? And how does one prepare vegetables so that they are cooked to perfection? In this book we have tried to provide answers to these and many other questions. We have designed it with several goals in mind: to give an overview of how mouthfeel fits into the perception of taste; to provide a popular introduction to the science underlying taste, mouthfeel, and texture, as well as a systematic review of the properties of raw ingredients that are fundamental to an appreciation of their structure, and with it, their mouthfeel; and to demonstrate the many ways in which mouthfeel can be altered. An extensive glossary and a detailed index are included as a quick reference for those who are not ready to delve too deeply into the science. Nevertheless, we hope that our search for a deeper scientific understanding will serve as a source of inspiration for experienced chefs, nutrition and wellness professionals, food entrepreneurs, and food enthusiasts so that they might join us in our goal of improving food culture as we experience it on a daily basis.

The quest to satisfy our curiosity about mouthfeel has taken us far beyond our own kitchens and laboratories on journeys around the world to places where its central role is well established. We are delighted to be able to share our adventures and experiences in tracking down taste and mouthfeel in their many forms and describe what happens to raw ingredients when we work with them to create softness, crispness, creaminess, elasticity, viscosity, and other textures. Using examples and recipes ranging from the basic to the exotic, we will show how you, the reader, can become adept at navigating through the universe of taste and gain a greater appreciation of its physical dimension: mouthfeel.


The authors wish to thank the following:

Our many colleagues in the multidisciplinary project “Taste for Life,” which is supported by the Nordea Foundation, for their inspiration and for opening our eyes and senses to the many facets of the universe of taste: Per Lyngs Hansen for many insightful conversations and discussions about food and science; Mathias Porsmose Clausen, Jinsoo Yi, and Morten Christensen for microscopic examinations of a variety of foodstuffs and for discussions about, and interpretation of, the microcosmos of food—Morten also as well for illustrations and information about milk and milk products; Per Møller and Michael Bom Frøst for conversations and information about sensory science; Kasper Styrbæk and Per Lyngs Hansen for a description of their new method for the calcification of tomatoes; Karen Wistoft for inspirational conversations about taste and the food preferences of children; Mikael Schneider and his four girls, Mille, Tilde, Sally, and Vigga, for demonstrating the jelly bean test and for taking photographs of it; Kasper Styrbæk for his tremendous and creative collaborative work in STYRBÆKS’s kitchen, and Christopher Huus and Zenia Lærke Larsen for their participation in the photo sessions.

Gordon M. Shepherd for information about the interaction between mouthfeel and umami, and his book Neurogastronomy: How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters has been a major source of inspiration; Jens Risbo for information about cold sweeteners; Amy Rowat for information about the gastrophysics of pies and chocolate and for her recipe for the perfect apple pie; Morihiro Onodera, Tamaki Farms, for information about the perfect sushi rice and permission to use his photographs.

Julie Drotner Mouritsen for enlightenment about psychological concepts and topics; Inger Marie Mouritsen for recipes for old-fashioned crullers and old-fashioned crispy spice cookies; Atsushi Kono from Restaurant Torishin in New York for information about and instruction in preparing tori-yaki; Jeppe Ejvind Nielsen from Restaurant Ulo at Hotel Arctic in Ilulissat, Greenland, for conversations about mouthfeel in Greenlandic food and for making available the recipe for an iced dessert; Koji Shimomura from Restaurant Édition Koji Shimomura, Tokyo, for the picture of the dish with poached oysters in a seawater gel; Daniel Burns and Florent Ladeyn for the recipe for candied winged kelp, which was elaborated at the workshop Arctic Must! in Ilulissat in northern Greenland in January 2014; Liz Roth-Johnson for materials about gelation with starch; Josh Evans and Roberto Flore at the Nordic Food Lab for the recipe for Peas ‘n’ Bees; Anita Dietz for a recipe for seaweed pesto and accompanying photograph; Jens Møller Products for permission to reproduce pictures of Cavi-art products; Alexandre Ponomarenko and Emmanuel Virot for permission to use their pictures of how popcorn develops; Jinsoo Yi for bringing dried jellyfish from Korea; Peter Bondo Christensen for an underwater picture of seaweed; Thormar Thorbergsson, Odense Chokoladehus, for a contribution of chocolate; Kent Stenvang, Egehøj Champignon, for supplying mushrooms and giving a tour of the facilities; Palsgaard A/S for access to the firm’s picture collection and permission to reproduce pictures; Steen Aalund, Løgismose, for supplying molds for special smoked fresh cheeses; Poul Rasmussen for exceptionally speedy delivery of everything good from the sea, including starfish; Kristoff Styrbæk for photographs and engaged conversations about photography.

Jonas Drotner Mouritsen for photography, illustrations, and collaboration on integrating text and graphical design. Joaquim Marquès Nielsen for technical illustrations.

This book was originally written and published in Danish, the mother tongue of the authors. This edition is a fully updated and revised version of the Danish work, translated into English and adapted for a wider audience by Mariela Johansen. Mariela enthusiastically undertook the ambitious task of turning the multidisciplinary material into a coherent, scientifically sound, and very readable book. She did an admirable job not only in translating the text, but also of checking facts, ensuring consistency, and suggesting new material and valuable revisions. The authors are extremely appreciative of her devoted work on this project. We would also like to thank our editor, Jennifer Crewe, for her enthusiastic interest in the project, and Columbia University Press for professional and expeditious handling of the manuscript.

Last, but not least, we wish to thank our families, especially Pia and Kirsten, who have had to live with us as we undertook our journey through the universe of mouthfeel in the course of a couple of years. They have had to lend us their ears and palates on numerous occasions. Thank you for your constant support and love.

The Complex Universe of Taste and Flavor

The universe of taste and flavor is marvelously complex, not only in terms of the senses involved but also in relation to the words we use to describe it. We often use the words “taste” and “flavor” rather loosely and interchangeably, without giving too much thought to their precise meaning. We might say that a piece of Brie tastes creamy or that olive oil is light in flavor. While we probably understand intuitively the meaning of these statements, they are inaccurate descriptions of the sensory impressions evoked by these foods. So, as we set out to explore this universe, we are immediately faced with the need to define the concepts of taste and flavor more rigorously.

On the one hand, strictly and scientifically speaking, taste refers only to the recognition of taste substances by the taste buds. On the other hand, flavor is multimodal and engages, to a greater or lesser degree, all five senses. Taste, smell, and touch are all central elements of a flavor impression, while sight, sound, and chemical reactions in the mouth are involved as well. Information derived from all these sources is integrated in the brain to leave us with a single impression of a food or a drink. Later in the chapter we will have a more detailed look at how the process works.

We have all experienced the extent to which taste and smell enhance and interact with each other. The role of the other main aspect of flavor, which is based on tactile sensations and known as mouthfeel, is often overlooked. In this book we have singled it out so as to foster a deeper understanding of how it affects our enjoyment of food and how we can make use of it to prepare more nutritious and flavorful food. Before plunging into how this is put into culinary practice, however, it is useful first to take the time to learn about the scientific underpinnings of flavor science.

The Mouth and the Nose: Where It All Begins

Virtually everything that we need to sustain normal life enters us through our mouth or nose, the main gateways between the material world and the inside of our body: food and drink through the mouth; air, a host of different airborne particles, and odor substances through the nose. These portals are designed to maximize the entry of those substances that are beneficial to us and minimize the possibility of swallowing or inhaling something that is potentially harmful.

The environment in which we live is far from benign; we are surrounded by vast quantities of artificial and naturally occurring substances and microorganisms that can be life-threatening. That is why we are well protected on the outside by a layer of skin, the stratum corneum, which is very dense and difficult to penetrate.

The internal surfaces of our body—that is, those of the oral and nasal cavities, air passages, and the digestive system—are more vulnerable. These areas are covered by mucous membranes, made up of epithelial cells, which form a good barrier against certain substances but allow others to pass through. They perform this function, for example, in the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged, and in the intestines, where nutrients are absorbed from the food. Unfortunately, harmful substances, such as poisons, noxious gases, and bacterial and plant toxins, are also able to pass through the mucous membranes and enter the bloodstream and reach the inner organs.

This is why the main gateways, the mouth and the nose, are well guarded by a large number of sensors. In the course of human evolution, these have developed to help us select substances that we need and allow them to pass through while at the same time keeping out those substances that are potentially dangerous and poisonous. These sensors transmit signals about taste, smell, and mouthfeel to the brain, where it is integrated with visual and auditory input and information about chemical reactions in the mouth and nose. This overall sensory impression is what determines whether we will allow something to pass through to the more easily damaged inside of our body. Mouthfeel is an important part of this determination.

Flavor impressions are surprisingly complicated and multidimensional. They are driven principally by the recognition of taste substances by the taste buds, the sensing of aromatic substances in the nose, the way the food feels in the mouth, and chemical effects on the mucous membranes (chemesthesis).

All these different senses are rooted in our nervous system. Like the motor system, this sensory system is connected to either the brain or the brainstem. This happens with the help of twelve paired cranial nerves and of nervelike connections called ganglia. They are either sensory, sending impressions from the senses to the brain, or motor, transmitting signals from the brain to the muscles and organs.


We all know that food tastes different when we have a blocked nose because of a cold. Actually, its taste is no different, but our sense of smell is temporarily diminished.

You do not need to have a cold, however, to experience the extent to which smell plays a role in flavor impressions. Just pinch your nose closed with your fingers, take a piece of candy—a wine gum, a jelly bean, or a candy with a fruit, cinnamon, or anise flavor—pop it into your mouth, and chew on it without exhaling. You taste only sweetness derived from the sugar or other sweetener in it. Let go of your nose, breathe out, and prepare yourself for a surprise. The candy suddenly seems to taste totally different because the aromatic substances that were added to it are now making their way from the mouth, up into the nose, and sending additional signals to the brain.

Several of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves are involved in identifying taste and odor substances and evaluating the impression made by food. All components of flavor make use of the cranial nerves to communicate with the brain, and this takes place at a very high level, which tells us that all aspects of flavor are important for our survival. The olfactory nerves are the first of these twelve pairs, the optic nerves are the second, and the trigeminal nerves are the fifth. All three are intimately involved with flavor impressions. The sense of smell is directly connected to the brain, the most crucial part of our central nervous system, at the highest cognitive level. Sensations of taste and mouthfeel pass indirectly to the brain through the brainstem, which is where other vital autonomic functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, are controlled.

• Smell is the most discriminating and most important aspect of flavor. The sense of smell is, in fact, much more discriminating than the sense of taste. It is stimulated by airborne substances in one of two ways. Odors are given off by food before it is put in the mouth and are inhaled directly through the nostrils; this is the orthonasal pathway. When we chew on food, aromas are released in the oral cavity and make their way up into the nasopharynx; this is known as the retronasal pathway. Retronasal detection of smell is the most important and well-developed route in humans, whereas dogs, to use a familiar example, detect most scents orthonasally. In both cases, the odor compounds arrive at the top of the nasal cavity, where they are detected by hundreds of discrete olfactory receptors. This in turn propagates an electrical impulse through the first pair of cranial nerves directly to the olfactory center in the brain (the olfactory bulb and the orbifrontal cortex, a region of the frontal lobe). A smaller portion of the signal is transmitted to the limbic system (paleomammalian brain), which is the locus in the brain for memory, feelings, and decision making about rewards and punishments. The sense of smell has a long evolutionary history, with about one out of every fifty genes in the human genome devoted to it. It is vital to our survival and is strongly linked to the subconscious. As a given smell can activate many odor receptors, humans are able to detect the differences between an enormous number of individual smells, possibly as many as 1 trillion. Recent research has shown that humans conceptualize smells as spatial patterns in the olfactory bulb, much in the same way as sight does on the visual cortex, forming a smell image. Nevertheless, our sense of smell is much less sensitive than that in some other species, for example, in bears, because our olfactory receptor neurons are not packed together as densely. But the area of the brain where we process signals from the nose is much larger and more sophisticated. For this reason our sense of smell may actually be much better developed than previously thought. The smell image in the brain of a particular odor can possibly be compared with the visual picture of a familiar face. This can help explain why odors and memories are linked in our mind.

Odor, smell, or aroma?

The words “smell,” “odor,” and “aroma” can be used to denote that which we perceive through the olfactory system. “Smell” is used most broadly, particularly in reference to the sense. Although the words “smell” and “odor” are value neutral, both have acquired a somewhat negative connotation, possibly due to their frequent association with the adjective “bad” and its synonyms. An aroma is also a smell, but this word is often used to describe one that is pleasant, such as that of freshly baked bread or a hearty stew.

• Taste, in the sense of what we taste directly on the tongue and in the oral cavity, is a physico-chemical and physiological entity that is localized especially in the almost 9,000 taste buds found on the tongue. The taste substances need to be dissolved in saliva before they enter through the pores of the taste buds to be picked up by the numerous taste cells. Taste cells are a specialized type of nerve cell that are tightly packed in the taste buds like the individual cloves in a bulb of garlic. The various receptors that are sensitive to the five basic tastes—sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami—are located in the cell membranes of these nerve cells. When the taste substances are recognized by and bound to the receptors, an electric signal is released via a series of biochemical processes, sent to the brainstem, and from there continues on to the brain. Each taste cell is primarily responsible for one type of basic taste. The various cells that are sensitive to the same basic taste send an integrated signal along a nerve fiber via three separate cranial nerves (the seventh, the ninth, and the tenth) through the thalamus to the taste center in the brain (anterior insula and the frontal operculum). In contrast to the sense of smell, it is not yet known whether the sense of taste forms a taste image on the cerebral cortex in the same manner as the senses of smell and sight.

• Mouthfeel, which will be described in greater detail later in this chapter, is a part of what is known as the somatosensory system. This system is found not only in the mouth, but everywhere in the body—for example, in the skeletal muscles, joints, inner organs, and cardiovascular system. Physical stimuli, including pain, temperature, and tactile sensations, such as pressure, touch, stretching, and vibrations, are picked up by the somatosensory system. It is also affected by the ability to sense the position and movements of the body and parts of the body (kinesthesia). This is linked to mouthfeel through the motions of the tongue as it explores and identifies the size, shape, and texture of a piece of food while chewing on it. Nerve endings in the teeth provide additional information about the structure of the food—its hardness, whether it is crunchy or elastic, and the size of its particles. Like the sensory impressions of taste, nerve signals regarding mouthfeel go indirectly through the brainstem to the brain—that is, to the thalamus and from there to the somatosensory center.


Irritants are substances—for example, capsaicin, isothiocyanate, and piperine—that have an irritating effect on the trigeminal nerve (chemesthesis). They are found in many raw ingredients, including onions, chile peppers, black pepper, mustard, wasabi, horseradish, ginger, cress, arugula, and radishes.

• Chemesthesis describes the sensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes to chemically induced reactions that cause irritation or pain and that may damage cells and tissues. In the mouth this is registered as a sharp taste when we eat chile peppers, which contain capsaicin; black peppercorns, which co


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