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FCCH Project

Food Contact Chemicals & Human Health Project

The Food Packaging Forum is systematically investigating the use and hazards of food contact chemicals, their migration into foods, presence in humans, and associated health effects

Mapping the Evidence on FCCs

Food packaging and other food contact articles are a source of human exposure to chemicals. This is because many of the food contact chemicals (FCCs) that are present in food contact materials (FCMs) are not tightly bound within the material’s structure. FCCs can therefore migrate from food packaging and other food contact articles into the food we eat.But how relevant are these exposures to human health? Which FCCs are humans known to be exposed to, and are these FCCs associated with adverse human health outcomes?Together with renowned project partners representing a range of cross-cutting expertise, the Food Packaging Forum initiated the Food Contact Chemicals & Human Health (FCCH) Project to address these questions. In four project parts, we compile data on FCCs, systematically map the evidence, and make the results accessible to the public.
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Food Contact Chemicals Database

Which FCCs are used in the manufacture of FCMs? Which FCCs are present on regulatory lists? What are their hazards?

To answer these questions, we developed the Food Contact Chemicals Database (FCCdb). This database integrates 67 international FCC lists, including regulatory lists and industry inventories, and adds information from authoritative sources of hazard information. It contains more than 12,200 FCCs and has a global scope.

Database on Migrating and Extractable Food Contact Chemicals

Which chemicals are present in food contact materials and articles? Which FCCs have been measured in migrates and extracts of food contact materials and articles?

We systematically integrated the results of 1210 published scientific references describing migration and extraction experiments from food contact materials and articles. Based on these data, we compiled the Database on Migrating and Extractable Food Contact Chemicals (FCCmigex). The database contains more than 3000 different FCCs and over 20,000 entries.

Future Databases

Which FCCs have been monitored in humans? (FCChumon)

We are currently investigating which FCCs have also been analyzed in humans. Detection of these chemicals in human samples provides evidence for exposure that may be attributable to food contact materials and articles.

(In Progress)

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How are FCCs associated with chronic diseases in humans? (FCChelix)

In the last part of the FCCH project, we will systematically investigate how the presence of different FCCs in the human body may be associated with adverse health effects.

(In Preparation)

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Protocol for systematically assessing the evidence of food contact chemicals monitored in humans

Geueke B, Parkinson LV, Dolenc J, Groh KJ, Kassotis CD, Maffini MV, Martin OV, Zimmermann L, and Muncke M, 2022, Zenodo; DOI:

Evaluating the food safety and risk assessment evidence-base of polyethylene terephthalate oligomers: Protocol for a systematic evidence map

Schreier VN, Appenzeller-Herzop C, Brüschweiler BJ, Geueke B, Wilks MF, Simat TJ, Schilter B, Smieško M, Muncke J, Odermatt A, and Roth N. 2022, Journal of Hazardous Materials; DOI:

Implementing the EU Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability: The case of Food Contact Chemicals of Concern

Zimmermann L, Scheringer M, Geueke B, Boucher JM, Parkinson LV, Groh KJ and Muncke J 2022, Journal of Hazardous Materials; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129167

Systematic evidence on migrating and extractable food contact chemicals: most chemicals detected in food contact materials are not listed for use

Geueke B, Groh KJ, Maffini MV, Martin OV, Boucher JM, Chiang YT, Gwosdz F, Jieh P, Kassotis CD, Lanska P, Myers JP, Odermatt A, Parkinson LV, Schreier VN, Srebny V, Zimmermann L, Scheringer M and Muncke J. 2022, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition; DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2067828

Unpacking the complexity of the PET drink bottles value chain: A chemicals perspective

Gerassimidou S, Lanska P, Hahladakis JN, Lovat E, Vanzetto S, Geueke B, Groh KJ, Muncke J, Maffini M, Martin OV, and Iacovidou E. 2022, Journal of Hazardous Materials; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128410

Overview of intentionally used food contact chemicals and their hazards

Groh K, Geueke B, Martin O, Maffini M, and Muncke J 2021. Environment International; Volume 150, 106225, DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106225

FCCdb: Food Contact Chemicals database

Groh K, Geueke B, and Muncke J. 2020, Zenodo, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3240108

Impacts of food contact chemicals on human health: a consensus statement

Muncke J, Andersson A-M, Backhaus T, Boucher JM, Carney Almroth B, Castillo Castillo A, Chevrier J, Demeneix BA, Emmanuel JA, Fini J-B, Gee D, Geueke B, Groh K, Heindel JJ, Houlihan J, Kassotis CD, Kwiatkowski CF, Lefferts LY, Maffini MV, Martin OV, Myers JP, Nadal A, Nerin C, Pelch KE, Rojello Fernández S, Sargis RM, Soto AM, Trasande L, Vandenberg LN, Wagner M, Wu C, Zoeller RT and Scheringer M. 2020, Environmental Health; Volume 25(20), DOI: 10.1186/s12940-020-0572-5

Protocol for a systematic map of the evidence of migrating and extractable chemicals from food contact articles

Martin OV, Geueke B, Groh KJ, Chevrier J, Fini J-B, Houlihan J, Kassotis C, Myers P, Nagel SC, Pelch KE, Sargis RM, Trasande L, Vandenberg LN, Wagner M,; Maffini MV, and Muncke J. 2018, Zenodo, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2525277


This project has been financially supported in part by , the , , , and it is also funded by Food Packaging Forum’s unrestricted core funding.

Project Partners

More than 20 experts from different fields have contributed to the Food Contact Chemicals and Human Health Project so far. The table below recognizes all of these important collaborators and their roles across the different sub-projects.The Core Team conceptualizes the project parts and works on their implementation. The Scientific Advisory Group supports the Core Team with advice during all parts of the project. Other specific contributions to the compilations of the two databases are also acknowledged.
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